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YEAR 1894 


PART I-Reports of Trustees, President, Departments, 
and Treasurer. 

PART II-Report of the Director of the Agricultural 
Experiment Station. 




YEAR 1894 


PART I-Reports of Trustees, President, Departments, 
and Treasurer. 

PART II-Report of the Director of the Agricultural 
Experiment Station. 





Report of the Board of Trustees 5 

Report of the President: 

The Faculty, 8 

The Departments, 12 

Mathematics and Astronomy, 12 

Rhetoric and Modern Languages, 12 

Logic and Civics, 13 

Chemistry, 13 

Physics and Electrical Engineering, 14 

Natural History, 15 

Agriculture, 15 

Civil Engineering, 17 

Mechanical Engineering, 17 

Military Science and Tactics, 17 

The Library, 18 

The Experiment Station, 18 

The Students, 18 

Number of Students, 18 

College Discipline, 19 

College Regulations, 19 

Student Expenses, 19 

A Loan Fund, 19 

Student Publications, 20 

The Courses of Study, 20 

General Statement, 20 

Electrical Engineering, 20 

Library Economy, 20 

Pharmacy, 21 

Preparatory Medicine, 21 

University Extension, Summer School, etc., 21 

Revision of the Courses of Study, 21 

Entrance Requirements, 22 

Approved Schools, 22 

Requirements in English, 22 



Report of the Examining Committee, 24 

The Commencement, 24 

Degrees Conferred, 24 

Portrait of President Fernald, 25 

Prizes, 25 

Alumni Associations 25 

The Boarding House, 25 

Food Investigations, 26 

Needs of the College, 26 

A College Office, 26 

Drill Hall, 26 

Dormitory, 26 

Finances, 27 

Estimates, 28 

Reports of the Departments : 

Rhetoric and Modern Languages , 37 

Civics, 39 

Chemistry, 41 

Physics and Electrical Engineering, 44 

Natural History, 48 

Agriculture, 55 

Animal Industry, 60 

Horticulture, 63 

Civil Engineering, - 66 

Mechanical Engineering, 71 

Military Science and Tactics, 73 

The Librarian, 78 

Report of the Treasurer : 

The Endowment and Income, 31 

General Statement of Receipts and Expenditures for the year 

ending June 30, 1894, 32 

Account with the Morrill Fund, 34 

The Experiment Station Account, 34 

Accounts brought down to December 1, 1894, 35 

Appendix : 

Report of the Examining Committee, 81 

Circular in regard to Electrical Engineering, 87 

Circular in regard to Library Economy, 90 

Circular in regard to the Farm Course, 

Circular in regard to the Winter Courses in Agriculture, 95 

Annual Catalogue for 1894-5. 


To the Honorable Governor and Executive Council of Maine : 

The trustees of the Maine State College of Agriculture and 
Mechanic Arts respectfully submit their twenty-sixth annual report, 
with the reports of the president and treasurer. The comprehen- 
sive and elaborate report of President Harris, which takes up and 
considers every department and every interest of the College, in 
detail, makes it necessary for the trustees to refer only to some of 
its more important affairs. 

Since the last report was submitted, the College has lost by 
death one of the most eminent and valuable of its faculty, Prof. 
Walter Balentine. Graduating from the College with honor in 
1874, and receiving additional training in universities in this coun- 
try and in Europe, he brought to his duties as professor of agri- 
culture, superior fitness, rare ability and a noble manhood. Re- 
markably successful in his teachiug, ever loyal to his work and the 
college, he died when his influence was strongest, beloved and 
mourned by all who knew him. Prof. W. H. Jordan, whose ability 
is everywhere acknowledged, was appointed successor to Prof. 
Balentine, and has very successfully carried forward the work of 
that department. This satisfactory arrangement was made possi- 
ble by a re-organization of the department of agriculture and of 
the experiment station. 

Three new courses have been established within the past year : 
Library Economy, Pharmacy and Electrical Engineering, all of 
which have attracted students to the College. Because of the 
course in Library Economy, the College has now more female 
students than for years. The other two courses are both proving 
popular, doubtless for the reason that there is a constant demand 
for young men with the training which these courses give. 

The equipment for the electrical engineering course is insufficient 
for its purposes and it will require an expenditure of probably ten 


thousand dollars to enable this department to do its work thoroughly. 
Forty young men have already entered this course. With the 
entrance this year of nearly one hundred new students, the college 
facilities have all been brought into use and certain needs have 
become more pressing. The college dormitory, Oak Hall, built in 
1870, which has for some time, shown the effect of years of con- 
tinual use, now demands extensive repairs, that should be made 
during the coming summer vacation. Increased dormitory accom- 
modations will have to be provided in the immediate future and the 
plan of giving aid to the building of society houses, set forth by 
President Harris in his report, may be the best way to secure the 
additional accommodations required. The need of a drill hall still 
continues to be one of the most urgent ; and as long as the students 
are unable to perform military drill in the winter, for the want of 
a proper drill hall, just so long will there be a failure to comply 
with the law of the nation by which the college was established. 
The need of a gymnasium is generally acknowledged, and the next 
legislature will be asked to make an appropriation for a building 
that shall be suitable for both gymnasium and drill hall. 

Since its foundation the trustees, president and friends of the 
college have been obliged to apply to the legislature each session 
for appropriations to meet its needs, and it will doubtless be neces- 
sary to pursue the same course in the future, unless the legislature 
shall decide to assess a fixed tax for its maintenance. The trustees 
have suggested that this be done, in former reports, and would now 
renew the suggestion. This method of providing for their State col- 
leges has been adopted by Colorado and other states of the Union. 
Colorado assesses a tax of one-sixth of one mill upon the valuation of 
that state, for the support of her agricultural college. If Maine will 
assess one-tenth of one mill, or one cent on each one hundred dol- 
lars valuation, for the benefit of her college, it will be sufficient to 
meet all its future needs. Has not this institution now become such 
a permanent and important part of the educational system of the 
State as to make it wise for the legislature to provide a fixed yearly 
appropriation for its support ? It was never in better condition 
than to-day. It has now the largest number of students in its 
history. The largest entering class was that of this year. The 
faculty and students are alike interested and enthusiastic. Good 
discipline and harmony prevail in every department. It is the 


State's institution and the college of the people. The sons and 
daughters are alike received there. Its work is different from that 
of the other colleges of the State. Its training is agricultural, 
mechanical and practical, broadening every year. Its students, 
after graduation, begin at once the practical work of life, becoming 
immediately men and women of affairs ; and as a rule achieve suc- 
cess in their vocations, thereby proving with every succeeding year, 
the value of its training and the wisdom of its founders. If prop- 
erly sustained, who can foretell the future extent of its usefulness ? 

President of Board of Trustees. 


To the Trustees of the Maine State College : 

Gentlemen : — I have the honor to submit my annual report as 
President of the Maine State College, for the calendar year 1894. 
I attach the reports of the heads of the various departments, the 
annual catalogue for the college year 1894-95, and some other 
papers of interest. 


The faculty has numbered twenty-eight in all during the year 
1894. Of this number three are not now in the service of the col- 
lege. Of the number in service during the present college year, 
one is on leave and two give all their time to investigation. 

The most important change in the faculty was caused by the 
death of Walter Balentine, the professor of agriculture, February 
26, 1894. Walter Balentine was born at Waterville, September 
21, 1851 ; prepared for college at the Classical Institute of that 
place, entered the sophomore class of the Maine State College in 
1871, and was graduated in 1874. The same year he entered upon 
a post-graduate course of study at the Wesleyan University in 
Middletown, Conn., where he remained for two years. During this 
time he held the position of assistant chemist in the agricultural 
experiment station of that University, the first experiment station 
organized in this country. He went from Middletown to Germany 
where he spent two years, one at the University of Greifswald, and 
one at the University of Halle. On his return to America he 
became assistant chemist in the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
at Washington, later professor of chemistry in the Kansas State 
University, and in 1881 professor of agriculture at the Maine State 
College. In his preparation for the work of instruction and inves- 
tigation he was excelled by few men who have gone into similar 

maim: STATE COLLEGE. \) 

lines of work. The remarkable results which his investigation 
showed are detailed in the reports of the experiment station. As a 
teacher he was eminently successful. It was at his suggestion 
that the short courses of one and two years and the winter training 
course in agriculture were established. He suggested also the "farm 
course" which has already proved unexpectedly successful. Prof. 
Valentine's influence over the students was unusually strong ; without 
any assertion of authority he exerted great control. His methods 
of work were most careful and conscientious, and his devotion to 
the interests of this institution was entirely without reservation. 

One of the most serious problems of the past year was the filling 
of this vacant place. The death of Professor Balentine occurred 
near the beginning of the spring term, and we were obliged to 
make immediate provision for carrying on his work, but as it was 
evident that it would be difficult to fill his place, his work was 
assigned temporarily to other members of the faculty. After care- 
ful consideration, it seemed best to re-organize the work of the 
department of agriculture and of the Experiment Station and to 
place Whitman H. Jordan, for several years the successful direc- 
tor of the station, at the head of both. The considerations which 
led to this conclusion were presented to y our board at your last 
meeting and were acted upon in the election of Professor Jordan, 
but it seems wise to re-state them briefly here. 

When Professor Balentine began his work at the Maine State 
College he was charged with both the instruction and investigation 
in agriculture. When the Experiment Station w r as established, the 
investigations were assigned to it, and Professor Balentine received 
the additional title of Agriculturist to the Experiment Station. 

This was not so much an increase of responsibility as of oppor- 
tunity. It had always been a part of his duty to make investiga- 
tions, but now, for the first time, he received funds adequate to 
carry them on. As time went on, his professorship was divided, 
until the work originally in charge of one man is now assigned to 
four. The professorship that Professor Balentine held became 
really that of Agricultural Chemistry, but the title was never 
changed. When Professor Balentine died the Experiment Sta- 
tion was somewhat embarrassed, because, after the payment 
of salaries, the surplus remaining at its disposal for the expenses 
of investigation was growing small. When the station was 
organized the investigators were young men whose salaries were 


small, and the surplus was large ; but as the men grew older the 
salaries increased and the demand for facilities also increased. Dur- 
ing this time the administration work of the station also increased, 
and every year demanded a larger portion of the time and energy 
of the director. To solve all the difficulties, the position of agri- 
culturist in the Experiment Station was abolished, the necessary 
work in this line assigned to other officers, the director of the 
Experiment Station was relieved from a large part of his executive 
duties, and given in its place the work of instruction, formerly 
carried on by Professor Balentine. This arrangement was, at one 
time, severely criticised by persons whose interest in the depart- 
ment of agriculture cannot be questioned. The criticisms were 
based upon the assumption that an attempt was being made to do 
away entirely with the professorship of agriculture and to assign 
the work permanently to other officers. This is not correct. Pro- 
fessor Jordan will give all the instruction formerly given by Profes- 
sor Balentine. 

I am pleased to report that when the facts were understood, 
your action received the approval of those who had been its most 
outspoken critics. It is hardly necessary to say that the appoint- 
ment of Professor Jordan is further justified by his eminent per- 
sonal and scientific qualifications. 

Professor Hart, of the department of mathematics, to whom you 
granted leave of absence for the year, is now at the University of 
Chicago, engaged in the study of advanced mathematics and 
astronomy. In the interest of economy his work has been assigned 
to other officers. General and practical astronomy, which were 
formerly junior studies, are not given this year, as the rearrange- 
ment of the course of study throws them into the senior year. 
Calculus, a junior study, and analytical geometry, a sophomore 
study, are in charge of the president. Freshman geometry, alge- 
bra and trigonometry are in charge of Mr. Cowan. 

Leave of absence, for study, has been granted to Professor 
Munson and Instructor Grover. 

Near the end of the spring term of 1894, Mr. Fred P. Briggs, 
instructor in natural history, who had been offered another posi- 
tion, presented his resignation with the request that he be relieved 
from work as soon as possible. After consultation with the head 
of the department, and with the president of the board of trustees, 
I accepted his resignation. Mr. Briggs served the College in this 


position Cor five years. 11 was with sincere regret that his collegues 
saw him leave the college service. Mr. Briggs' work has been 
largely the care and increase of the museum and herbarium. At 
the time of his resignation he was also giving instruction to the 
freshman class in botany. This work was completed by Prof. 
Harvey. In view of the condition of the treasury, this position 
has not been filled. The museum and herbarium work will be 
reduced to the lowest limits, and his work of instruction will be 
assigned to other officers. Prof. Munson will take the elementary 
botany, Mr. Russell the advanced physiology, and Prof. Harvey 
what remains. 

Fremont L. Russell, the veterinarian of the Experiment Station, 
has been made instructor in veterinary science. He will also give 
instruction in advanced physiology and bacteriology. 

Mr. David W. Trine, assistant in horticulture, resigned his posi- 
tion, at the end of the last college year. As his chief work was 
in connection with the improvements in the grounds, made in 
accordance with the appropriations of the last legislature, and 
as the appropriation has been expended, no one has been appointed 
to succeed him. 

Mr. Ernest P. Chapin has been appointed instructor in electrical 
engineering. He was graduated at Cornell University in 1893, with 
the degree of B. M. E. for work in electricity. He took high rank 
in his college course, doing especially good work in mathematics 
and practical electricity ; made a complete test of the Ithaca Elec- 
tric Railroad, and followed his college course by practical experi- 
ence in the application of electricity to railroad block signals. He 
has had limited experience in teaching. 

Mrs. Elizabeth A. Balentine has been employed as secretary to 
the president, and clerk to the treasurer. 

Mr. A. J. Durgin has been emplo} T ed as assistant in carpentry. 

Professor Hamlin, having been elected city engineer of Bangor, 
has been relieved of some college work, and has paid the salary of 
the tutor in civil engineering. 

Mr. George P. Cowan, of the class of 1894, has been appointed 
tutor in civil engineering. 

Mr. George H. Hall, of the class of 1894, has been appointed 
meteorologist to the Experiment Station. 

Mr. Frank Damon, of the class of 1895, has been appointed stu- 
dent assistant in physics. 


Mr. W. W. Chase, of the class of 1895, has been appointed stu- 
dent assistant in elementary drawing. 


Mathematics and Astronomy. — The courses in Astronomy are two ; 
a general course open to all students, and a course in practical 
astronomy, required of the students in civil engineering. This 
course should be extended and made elective in the scientific course. 
The college needs an astronomical observatory and its equipment. 
The telescope which the college now possesses is a good one, but 

The teaching force in this department will need increase. In the 
technical courses, in which most of our students are found, no sub- 
ject is more important than the elementary mathematics, and the 
professional success of our graduates will be greatly effected by the 
thoroughness of the drill in the mathematics of the freshman and 
sophomore years. Before this year the number of students ha& 
not made it necessary to divide any class into sections. The 
freshman class of this year is taught in two sections numbering 
about forty in each, and ought to be divided into three or even four 
sections. This class should be divided into two sections next year 
for sophomore mathematics. If the increase in the number of stu- 
dents should be maintained, the next freshman class will need to 
be divided into not less than four sections. In the succeeding year 
it seems probable that there will be two sections in the junior cal- 
culus, two or three sections in the sophomore analytical geometry, 
and four sections in the freshman mathematics. The increased 
number of students will make it necessary to relieve the instruc- 
tors in the engineering departments of the classes in mathematics 
which they now teach. These changes will require the employ- 
ment of one tutor in mathematics next year and of two in the 
second year. 

This department should offer elective courses in mathematics in 
the scientific course, in addition to the courses required of engineer- 
ing students, beyond which we now give no instruction. An 
optional course in the Method of Least Squares has been conducted 
this year by the professor of physics. 

Rhetoric and Modern Languages. — I regard this department as 
especially important in an institution like this, where the students- 


are very largely dependent upon it for their knowledge and training 

in the art of using language. It is desirable that it should be 
divided into a department of modern languages and a department 
of English. 

The instruction in modern languages is not planned with the 
object of teaching a speaking knowledge of these languages. I am 
pursuaded that if this were attempted, whatever success might 
seem to be attained would be deceptive. We have however tried 
to teach our students to read with some ease scientific publications 
iu French and German. The use of French and German text 
books in chemistry is a guaranty of no small success in this 
attempt. I hope that we may soon be able to offer students more 
advanced courses than those now given, and especially that we 
may be able to give increased attention to the study of the litera- 
ture of these languages. 

None of our studies are more important than English, The 
instruction now given in English literature, English composition 
and declamation is insufficient. The ability to write fair English 
and to express thought in effective speech is of the highest value in 
every profession and walk of life, and training in these lines, is 
unexcelled as a means of developing the mental powers. To pro- 
vide proper instruction and practice in English, a tutor should be 
appointed next year. The need of this appointment is made 
imperative by the increase in the number of students. Before 
this year the professor of this department has had more work than 
should be assigned to one man ; the entry of new students for the 
present year is two and a half times as great as that of the last 

Logic and Civics. — Through this department the students find 
entrance to the world of philosophy and of sociology. As a stim- 
ulus to thought and philanthropy its work is of the highest value. 

Chemistry. — This department is in the charge of a professor and 
an instructor and is equipped with a large laboratory fitted with 
ample fixtures and apparatus. It offers courses in analytical and 
technical chemistry, photography and mineralogy, and will next 
year offer technical instruction in pharmacy. The course in chem- 
istry has graduated many men who have done useful service in 
teaching, investigation and business, and I am persuaded that it 
will grow in popularity. 


I think we may confidently expect a large number of students in 
the new courses in pharmacy. The courses will be two in number, 
one extending through twx> years, and one through four years. 
There are but two other institutions in the United States which 
offer a four years' course in this subject. You will be gratified to 
know that although technical instruction in pharmacy, which will 
fall into the third and fourth years of the long course, has not been 
commenced, and although the course has not been advertised, seven 
sophomores and eight freshmen have registered for this cours-e. 
This is an ample justification of your action in establishing the 
course. For instruction in this subject we shall need an instructor 
in pharmacy. 

Physics and Electrical Engineering . — The work in these subjects 
is conducted by the professor of physics, the instructor in electri- 
cal engineering and a student assistant. The work in electrical 
engineering was begun this year with a very small equipment, in 
order to determine before the meeting of the legislature what demand 
existed for it. The equipment is small and the advertisement of 
the work was not extensive, but forty students are already receiving 
instruction in this subject. I therefore regard the request of the 
department of physics and electrical engineering for $11,000 for 
apparatus and other equipment, as one of those which should 
receive first consideration. Unless provision be made by the 
State for incidental expenses and repairs, which now constitute a 
heavy charge upon our instruction funds, provision must be made 
for the salary of the instructor in electrical engineering. 

A part of the equipment desired for instruction in this subject, 
may be used as an electric lighting plant for college buildings and 
grounds. The college is at present spending eight hundred dollars 
a year for electric light ; with our own plant we can probably save 
half of this sum. 

The success of the course in electrical engineering is largely due 
to the energy of the professor of physics, and I therefore recom- 
mend that, for the present, it be put in his charge. I do not 
recommend a change in the title of the professorship. 

I join with the faculty in the recommendation that graduates in 
the course in electrical engineering receive the degree of B. M. E. 
and three years later, on the usual conditions, either M. E. or E. 
E., as their work and desires may determine. 


Natural History. — The work and needs of this department are 
fully stated in the report of Professor Earvey. I appreciate the 
difficulties under which his work is done, and take this occasion to 
commend the excellent results obtained. In the interest of econ- 
omy, I recommend that the instructorship in natural history 
remain vacant. 

Agriculture. — The technical instruction in agricultural science is 
given in four departments, namely, those of agriculture, or more 
properly agricultural chemistry ; animal industry or agricultural 
practice ; horticulture ; and veterinary science, or comparative 
medicine. The college is as well equipped for investigation and 
instruction in agricultural science as in any other department and 
as well equipped as any college in New England. The course in 
agriculture is strictly scientific and broadly educational. Its stu- 
dents spend no time in labor which has not an educational value. 
The laboratories in agricultural chemistry and horticulture are 
admirably equipped. The investigations in economic botany, in 
the feeding capacity of plants, in the digestibility of foods, in 
bacteriology, in diseases of animals, are of the widest interest and 
full of inspiration to the highest scientific thought and action. As 
a field for investigation and a subject for popular or higher educa- 
tion, the agricultural sciences offer unexcelled inducements. It 
is, therefore, remarkable that this department has not been suc- 
cessful in drawing to its work a large number of students. 

In addition to the course of four years, there are two others, one 
of two years and one of one year, intended especially for the tech- 
nical training of farmers. 

The winter training course was begun three years ago. The 
length of the course is this year reduced from sixteen weeks to six. 
Formerly each student received instruction in agricultural chemistry, 
dairying, animal husbandry, horticulture and veterinary science. 
It is now proposed to give three simultaneous courses ; in general 
agriculture, in dairying, and in horticulture, each six weeks in 
length and requiring the whole time of the student. This change 
is made necessary by the unexpectedly great success of the farm 
course ; but it is believed that it will be approved by the farming 
•community. It will be necessary for the student to attend the col- 
lege three winters to cover the ground formerly covered in one ; 
but this change has distinct advantages. Many farmers who would 
find it difficult to leave their home work for a whole winter, will be 


glad to know that the time now required is six weeks, and the 
expense, excluding traveling expenses, less than $25 for all items. 
A large number of illustrated circulars have been distributed to 
persons likely to be interested. 

The farm course which has proved the most noteworthy success- 
of the agricultural departments, is an application of the university 
extension methods. In the fall of 1893, the college offered to 
establish a short course of two weeks with one, two, or three lectures 
each day, wherever a class of sufficient size could be got together 
under an agreement to attend the classes regularly and to pay the 
expenses involved. The lectures were carefully prepared, and 
fully illustrated by charts, pictures, lantern slides, apparatus, and 
specimens. The subjects of the lectures included cattle breeding 
and feeding, dairying, plant nutrition, fertilizers, soils, bacteria, 
small fruit, market gardening, fungi, insects, etc. The cost 
included the traveling expenses of the lecturers, their board, and the 
expense of transporting illustrative material. No charges are made 
for the time of the speakers. During the fall and winter of '93-'94 
ten courses of lectures were given with a total regular attendance, 
not counting visitors, of 257 persons ; during the present year 
twelve courses have been planned. » 

The field clay of the agricultural departments is one of the pleas- 
antest features of the college year. The last field day was June 1, 
1894. It was determined by a count that over seventeen hundred 
persons were present. Special rates were obtained from the rail- 
road for persons coming from a distance. The college buildings 
were thrown open, and especial pains were taken to exhibit the facili- 
ties for instruction in the most satisfactory manner. The morning 
was devoted to an inspection of the laboratories, library, shops, and 
other buildings. After dinner had been served upon the campus, 
an exhibition drill was given by the cadets, and a meeting was 
held in the college chapel, at which addresses were delivered by 
the President and members of the faculty, the Secretary of the 
Board of Agriculture, and other prominent visitors. 

The plan for carrying on the college farm has been materially 
changed, by which I hope that its usefulness as an instrument of 
instruction will be increased and the expense of its management 
decreased. The suggestion of Professor Gowell to introduce the 
study of poultry meets with my approval. 


In the interest of good administration, I recommend that the 
professor of agriculture be designated as head professor of the 
Course in Agriculture, including the departments of agriculture, 
horticulture, animal husbandry and veterinary science. The 
professor of agriculture has held this place for many years by com- 
mon consent. 

Civil Engineering — This department has furnished more grad- 
uates than any other and the success which its students have 
attained is very gratifying. I believe it quite possible to maintain 
its high standard of work and keep it upon an equality with any 
other similar department in the country. 

Mechanical Engineering — This department is one of the oldest 
and most popular. Its methods in theoretical and practical instruc- 
tion and the results attained are worthy of the highest commenda- 
tion. The shop building is a very poor one, but the draughting 
rooms in Wingate Hall and the equipment of machinery and appa- 
ratus are unexcelled. 

Military Science and Tactics, — In addition to the military science 
required by United States law, the work of this department 
includes systematic and scientific instruction in physical culture, 
intended, not to develop athletes, but to correct weaknesses or 
abnormal developments, to call out the bodily powers, and ensure 
the preservation of health. 

I am of the opinion that our people have not properly recognized 
the fact that this department makes the college the military school 
of the State. The government requires, as a partial return for its 
expenditures, that our students prepare themselves to assist in the 
public defense in case of need. To accomplish its own ends, the 
State should take measures to retain a hold upon the students after 
graduation. On the other hand, these students have devoted more 
time than any other citizens of the State to preparing themselves for 
efficient service as military officers, and justice to them requires 
some recognition of this fact. I suggest that the legislature be 
asked to provide that upon graduation, they be made retired offi- 
cers of the national guard of the State with the rank attained in 
the college corps, but in no case below that of second lieutenant. 
This course is already followed in California. 

The annual military encampment held in the fall of 1890 in the 
city of Portland was unusually successful. The camp was on the 


site occupied by the Grand Army of the Republic several years 
ago. The students were handsomely entertained. The corps was 
reviewed by his Excellency the Governor and members of his staff, 
and by the mayor and other officers of the city. Many courtesies 
were tendered by the churches, the Young Men's Christian 
Association and prominent citizens. The college is greatly 
indebted to the Western Maine Alumni Association by which 
arrangements for this encampment were made. The Associa- 
tion arranged a public reception in the city hall, which was 
crowded to its utmost capacity. An opening address was made by 
the president of the association. Mr. S. AY. Bates of the class of 
'76 who introduced the Rev. Charles F. Allen. I). D.. first Presi- 
dent of the college who offered prayer. An address of welcome 
was delivered by Hon. Charles H. Randall, chairman of the board 
of aldermen and responded to by the President of the college. 
Professor Rogers delivered an illustrated address on the college, 
and a picked squad of students gave an exhibition drill. 

The Library. — I approve most heartily, the recommendation of 
the librarian for the increase of the library. 

The Experiment Station. — I wish to bear testimony to the excel- 
lent work which has been done by the Experiment Station and to 
the careful way in which its funds have been expended. Its inves- 
tigations take a high rank for accuracy and carefulness, audits publi- 
cations are worthy of the study of those interested in agriculture. 
In addition to this work, the station has done a great service to the 
State, as the executive of the laws for the control of the fertilizer 
trade. It has also done a valuable work, through the fanners* 
institutes at which the members of its force have been frequent 
and popular speakers. 


Number of Students. — In my last annual report, I stated that the 
number of students was not large enough to make full use of the 
;e facilities. It is gratifying to report a large increase. The 
total number of new students admitted during the year '93-'94 was 
50. At the time of writing — November 1894 — the corresponding 
number is 94 and before the end of the college year, it will 
undoubtedly exceed one hundred. The freshman class is the larg- 
est in the history of the college. The whole number of student- is 
197. This increase is especially gratifying in a year in which the 


financial conditions of the country might lead to the expectation of a 
small class. The advance of the institution in numbers is shown 
by the following figures. The number of students in the fall of 
1885 was 92 ; in 1886, 103 ; in 1887, 121 ; in 1888, 122 ; in 1880, 
131 ; in 1890, 113 ; in 1891, 102 ; in 1893, 139 ; in 1894, 197. 

College Discipline. — With the exceptions noted below, the col- 
lege order has been satisfactory. Two students have been sus- 
pended for short periods, one for disorderly conduct which inter- 
fered with a college exercise, and one for insubordination. A few 
of the students rooming in the dormitory, were guilty of offence 
against good order, and were required to vacate their rooms. I 
recommend that the board close the free dormitory against students 
whose conduct is open to any objection whatever. 

College Regulations — In the last report, I included a new set of 
regulations governing attendance upon recitations, examinations, 
etc. These went into operation in the fall term of 1894, and their 
success has more than met our expectations. The attendance upon 
college work has been more regular than before, the student's feel- 
ing of responsibility has been increased, and the presentation of 
excuses from students is almost unknown. 

Student Expenses — Every effort is made to resist any tendency 
to increase the expenses of the students. These are unusually low 
and should remain so. A casual investigation leads me to sup- 
pose that a student's expenses average is about two hundred 
dollars a year exclusive of the cost of clothes, travelling, and 
maintenance during the vacation. 

A Loan Fund — The opportunities for a student to work his way 
through college are very few, and the direct assistance given to 
poor students is small. I recommend that you consider the advis- 
ability of establishing a fund in charge of a loan association, from 
which loans may be made to needy students. Security should be 
required from the borrowers, either in the form of a lien upon real 
estate or other property, or in the form of notes carrying undoubted 
indorsements. The loan should bear interest and be payable in 
small installments beginning soon after graduation. Each borrower 
should become a member of the loan association, and be assigned 
to a class with other borrowers of the same year, and it should be 
agreed that his obligations cease when his payments added to his 
share of the earnings of his class, shall equal his indebtedness. 


To inaugurate this plan it would be necessary to raise about ten 
thousand dollars as capital. 

The Student Publications. — During the year the members of the 
class of 1895 issued The Prism, a publication of about 150 pages, 
with thirty illustrations, containing information in regard to the 
college, its officers, students and work. The publication was in 
every way highly creditable. The Cadet, the student paper has 
been changed to magazine form, freely illustrated and greatly 
improved in general character. 


The eight courses of study leading to degrees, each requiring 
four years, are as follows : — For general training, the Scientific 
Course, including required and elective studies in English, French 
and German, mathematics, and philosophy, political economy, physics 
and biology ; in technology, the courses in Civil, Mechanical and 
Electrical Engineering ; in applied science, the courses in Chemistry, 
Agricultural Science, Preparatory Medicine, and Pharmacy. The 
short courses leading to a certificate are : — The course in Library 
Economy of one year, designed for those who wish training in the. 
care and management of libraries ; the course in Pharmacy of two 
years, designed for those who wish to obtain a practical training in 
pharmacy in the shortest time ; the courses of one and two years 
in agriculture, designed for farmers ; and training courses for 
farmers, of six weeks each, in general agriculture, in dairying, 
and in horticulture. 

Electrical Engineering. — In planning this course it was remem- 
bered that this subject is a branch of mechanical engineering. The 
first, second, and third years are nearly identical with the same 
years of the course in mechanical engineering. The studies are 
stated in detail in the catalogue included in this report. The num- 
ber of students in this course exceeded our expectations and more 
than justifies the action of the board in establishing it. 

The Course in Library Economy. — There are six students in this 
course, all women. The course is intended for those who desire 
training in the care and management of libraries. It is expected 
to occupy the time of the student for one year. The work will 
consist of lectures, instruction and practice in library handwriting, 
accession and order department routine, cataloguing, classification, 


loan systems, binding, shelf arrangement, shelf-listing, reference 
work and bibliography, literature and the history of books and 
printing. No change is made for tuition. Each student pays for 
materials used, and an incidental charge to cover care of buildings, 
heal, etc. 

Pharmacy. — Two courses in pharmacy have been established ; 
one of four years and one of two. The first and the second years 
of the long course will be identical with those in the chemical 
course. The third and fourth will be similar to the two years of 
the short course with the exception that some of the more advanced 
studies introduced into the long course for purposes of general 
training will be omitted from the short course in order to give time 
for the elementary scientific courses which make up part of the 
first and second years of the long course. The technical work of 
these courses has not been planned in detail and will not be 
announced until after the appointment of an instructor in the theory 
and practice of pharmacy. 

The Preparatory Medical Course. — This course will be identical 
with the chemical course for the first and second years. In the 
later years it will include a larger amount of physiology, bacteri- 
ology and botany. The work of the third and fourth years will be 
published in detail, in the catalogue for the next college year. 

University Extension, Summer School. — The last catalogue con- 
tained plans for extension courses, a summer school for teachers 
and a short winter course in carpentry. I believe that these courses 
would have been appreciated by the public but am now compelled 
to recommend that they be abandoned for the present. The 
increase in the number of students has thrown so much extra work 
on nearly every member or the faculty, that they cannot undertake 
the extra work involved, in these courses, without impairing their 
usefulness in the regular work of the college. 

Revision oj the Courses of Study. — Under your authority the 
faculty made a careful revision in the courses of study which went 
into effect at the beginning of the fall term of 1894. The number 
of hours of class room work exclusive of exercises in composition 
and declamation, is approximately twenty hours per week. The 
relative amount of time given to culture studies, in the technical 
courses is slightly increased. The change is too recent to justify 
any statement in regard to the results but I believe that a closer 


co-ordination of the various lines of our work will strengthen them 
and insure to the student more thorough and symetrical results. 


Approved Sc7wols.—A serious defect in our present system of 
education is the loss of time suffered by the student in passing from 
the lower schools, through the high schools, to the college. What 
the. grading of the high schools did for its classes, needs to be done 
for the preparatory schools, colleges, and professional schools, taken 
as a unit. The school work is not planned to prepare the student 
for the college in the best way and shortest time, but often seems 
to have been made without any consideration of the part of stu- 
dent's work which lies beyond the school. As a result many 
students enter college, even after expensive preparatory courses 
with only a poor preparation, and a year or more later than need 
be. No reform is more needed than one which shall bring the 
school and college courses into accord, and this ought not to be 
difficult, in the case of the state college and the public schools, all 
supported by public funds and under the control of public officers. 
In recognition of these facts and with the desire to establish a 
system by which students might pass from the high schools and 
academies to the college in a manner as nearly as possible like that 
by which they pass from the secondary school to the high school, 
the college established last year a list of approved schools, whose 
graduates are admitted to the college upon certificates of fitness J 
made out upon blanks furnished by the college. 

These regulations have been called to the attention of many 
schools in the State and the list of schools now approved is perhaps 
nearly as large as it ought to be. It seems to me worthy of consid- 
eration, however, whether the State should not recognize the impor- 
tance of the reform referred to, by legislation which shall require 
the co-ordination of the work of the State College, the public high) 
schools and the academies which receive public appropriations. 

Entrance Requirements in English. — In May, 1894, representa- 
tives of the New England Commission of Colleges on Entrance i 
Examinations, the New England Association of Colleges and Pre- 
paratory Schools, and the Association of Colleges and Preparatory 
Schools in the Middle States, drew up a scheme of English require- » 


ments. I join with the faculty in recommending the adoption of 

this scheme as follows : 

tfote.— No candidate will he accepted in English whose work is notably defec- 
tive in point of spelling, punctuation, idiom, or division into paragraphs. 

1. Reading and Practice. A limited number of books will 
be set for reading. The candidate will be required to present evi- 
dence of a general knowledge of the subject-matter, and to answer 
simple questions on the lives of the authors. The form of exami- 
nation will usually be the writing of a paragraph or two on each of 
several topics, to be chosen by the candidate from a considerable 
number — perhaps ten or fifteen — set before him in the examination 
paper. The treatment of these topics is designed to test the can- 
didate's power of clear and accurate expression, and will call for 
only a general knowledge of the substance of the books. In place 
of a part or the whole of this test, the candidate may be allowed to 
present an exercise book, properly certified by his instructor, con- 
taining compositions or other written work done in connection with 
the reading of the books. 

The books set for this part of the examination will be : 

1895 — Shakspere's Twelfth Night; the Sir Roger de Coverley 
Papers in The Spectator ; Irving' s Sketch Book ; Scott's Abbot ; 
Webster's First Bunker Hill Oration ; Macaulay's Essay on Milton ; 
Longfellow's Evangeline. 

1896 — Shakspere's Midsummer Night's Dream; Defoe's History 
of the Plague in London ; living's Tales of a Traveler ; Scott's 
Woodstock ; Macaulay's Essay on Milton ; Longfellow's Evan- 
geline ; George Eliot's Silas Marner. 

1897 — Shakspere's As You Like It; Defoe's History of the 
Plague in London ; living's Tales of a Traveler ; Hawthorne's 
Twice Told Tales ; Longfellow's Evangeline ; George Eliot's Silas 

1898 — Milton's Paradise Lost, Books I and II ; Pope's Iliad, 
Books I and XXII ; the Sir Roger de Coverley Papers in The 
Spectator ; Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield ; Coleridge's Ancient 
Mariner ; Southey's Life of Nelson ; Carlyle's Essay on Burns ; 
Lowell's Vision of Sir Launfal ; Hawthorne's House of the Seven 

2. Study and Practice. — This part of the examination presup- 
poses the more careful study of each of the works named below. 
The examination will be upon subject-matter, form, and structure, 


and will also test the candidate's ability to express his knowledge 
with clearness and accuracy. The books set for this part of the 
examination will be : 

1895 — Shakspere's Merchant of Venice; Milton's L'Allegro, II 
Penseroso, Comus, and Lycidas ; Macaulay's Essay on Addison. 

1896 — Shakspere's Merchant of Venice; Milton's L'Allegro, II 
Penseroso, Comus, and Lycidas ; Webster's First Bunker Hill 

1897 — Shakspere's Merchant of Venice ; Burke's Speech on Con- 
ciliation with America; Scott's Marmion; Macaulay's Life of 
Samuel Johnson. 

1898 — Shakspere's Macbeth; Burke's Speech on Conciliation 
with America ; De Quincey's Flight of a Tartar Tribe ; Tennyson's 


In accordance with custom, the faculty requested Rev. W. F. 
Holmes, Hon. B. Walker McKeen, and Hon. S. W. Mathews, to visit 
the college shortly before Commencement, as an examining com- 
mittee, to inspect its facilities and work and make a public report 
in regard to the character of the work done and to add any sugges- 
tions in regard to changes and developments needed. A copy of 
their report is printed in the appendix. 


At the Commencement in June, 1894, degrees were conferred 
upon the followiug persons : 

The Bachelor's Degree, — Frank Colburn Bowler, Orono ; Edward 
Henry Cowan, Orono ; George Parker Cowan, Bangor ; Leroy Tol- 
ford Durham, Munroe ; Charles Edward Gilbert, Orono; Jesse 
Alexander Gray, Oldtown ; George Harry Hall, Bangor ; Augus- 
tus Daniel Hayes, Belfast ; Wallace Hight Jose, Newport; Alva 
Thomas Jordan, Lexington, Ky. ; James Mayberry Kimball, Ban- 
gor ; Herbert Murray, Eocklancl ; Leon Orlando Norwood, Union; 
George Washington Rumball, Harrington ; Edward Butler Wood, 

The Master's Degree. — Ralph Jesse Arey, Winslow, Ariz. ; Her- 
bert Austin Hall, Prescott, Ariz. ; Allen Crosby Hardison, Santa 
Paula, Calif. ; Frank Eugene Kidder, Denver, Colo. ; William 


Alton Valentine, Philadelphia, Perm. ; Ralph Holbrook Wight, 
Green Bay, Wis. ; Jennie Chase Michaels, Stillwater, Me. 

Portrait of President Ferncdd. — One of the most interesting fea- 
tures of the last commencement was the receipt of a portrait of 
President Fernald, painted by Mr. Albert V. Currier of Hallowell, 
as a gift from the Alnmni Association. It was presented in an 
address by Mr. E. M. Blanding of Bangor, and received on behalf 
of the college, by the president. The picture now hangs in the 
college library and a copy of it adorns this report. 


During the year two prizes, the sophomore and freshman stand- 
ing prizes have been withdrawn. Other prizes have been estab- 
lished : The Cumberland County Prize, the gift of Mr. W. F. 
Burrowes of Portland ; the Penobscot County Prize, the gift 
of Hon. Henry Lord of Bangor ; and the Kennebec County 
Prize, the gift of Hon. William T. Haines of Waterville. It is my 
desire to extend the list of county prizes until it shall represent 
each county in the State. 


Two Alumni Associations have been established during the last 
year ; the Washington Association with Prof. F. Lamson-Scribner, 
agrostologist of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, as president, 
and the Aroostook County Association. 


The boarding house has been under the management of Mr. A. 
E Spencer as steward. At the time of writing, the price of board 
is not yet determined for the fall term. For the spring term of 
1894 it was $2.80 per w r eek, 25 cents less than the cost for the 
same term of the preceding year. I renew my recommendation of 
last year that the boarding house be equipped with new and 
improved machinery for its work. During the fall term of the 
present year the number of boarders has been greater than last 
year and the equipment has proved unequal to the task of caring for 
so many students. 



The last session of Congress made an appropriation of $10,000, 
to be expended by the Secretary of Agriculture in assisting inves- 
tigations upon the economy of the food used by our people. It is 
proposed that a part of this work be done at different institutions, 
of which the Maine State College is one. It is our purpose to 
make careful investigations in the boarding house in regard to the 
efficiency and economy of methods of cooking and serving, of bills 
of fare, etc. 


A General College Office. — The college has no general office. 
The office of the President is in his residence and all his business 
has until recently been conducted there, at a great loss of time, 
both because college documents are in other places and because 
this arrangement makes it impossible to devote any time to 
study without interruptions. The office of the Secretary and 
Registrar of the faculty is his study in Wingate Hall ; the 
office of the Treasurer was located in same building. The 
President and Treasurer are now using temporarily a recita- 
tion room in Coburn Hall as an office. All the college offices 
should be brought together. A suitable room can be found in the 
south basement of Coburn Hall, which is half above ground, well 
lighted and easily heated. It will be necessary to lay a floor, 
wainscot and ceil the walls, construct an entrance from the out- 
side, provide heating apparatus, desks and fixtures. A thousand 
dollars will be needed for this purpose. 

Drill Hall. — The United States law requires instruction in mili- 
tary science and the State has agreed to provide it. This has been 
well done, but the college is in need of a drill hall in which the 
instruction can be continued during the winter months. Such a 
building would also serve as a gymnasium, the possession of which 
I consider as of very unusual importance. Many of our students 
come directly from the farms of the State where they have been 
accustomed to severe and protracted bodily exercise and need sys- 
tematic and continuous physical culture to enable them to accom- 
modate themselves to the comparative quiet life of a student. 

Dormitory Accommodations. — The college has one dormitory in 
which there were originally forty-eight student rooms, but several 


were taken for general purposes ; two for reading rooms, one for 
janitor's office, two for bath rooms, one for office for the college 
paper, one for a book room, and one for an athletic room. 

The increase in the number of the students made it necessary 
this year to return as many of these rooms as possible to their 
original uses, and in addition, to make new rooms by partitioning 
of certain corridors. These expedients were sufficient to supply 
the demand of the present year but it is probable that next year 
we shall be obliged to refuse rooms to a number desiring them. I 
am not prepared to recommend the building of another dormitory. 
The time is not far distant when such a building must be erected, 
but for the present I think it better for the legislature to pass a 
resolve directing that whenever any student society, desiring to 
erect upon the campus, or other approved site, a society building 
shall give the trustees proof that it can provide for all but $5,000 
of the cost, the trustees shall certify this fact to the State Treas- 
urer, who shall pay to the treasurer of the college the sum of 
$5,000 to be expended by the trustees in assisting in the erection 
of such a building, provided that the building with furniture shall 
cost not less than $10,000, and shall contain rooms for not less 
than twenty students, that the plans shall be satisfactory to the 
trustees, and that the building shall be the property of the colleoe, 
to be held for the sole use of the society as long as it shall exist. 

By adopting this method the State will save one-half, or more, 
of the expense of erecting the dormitories, and all expense of 
maintenance or care. At the same time the students will reap 
evident advantages. It is not probable, though possible, that 
such an offer would be taken up during the next two years, but it 
should be made now, to encourage the societies to begin the collec- 
tion of money at once. 


In 1862, the State received from the general government thirty 
thousand acres of land for each Maine senator and member of the 
House of Representatives. This land was sold by the State and 
the fund derived from the sale amounting to about $130,000 is now 
held in the treasury, together with $100,000, the gift from Abner 
Coburn, as the permanent endowment of the college. The annual 
income from this source is about $10,000. As students pay no 


fees for tuition and no room rent, our only other sources of income 
are appropriations by the State and national governments. For 
purposes of instruction we receive this year from the United States 
Treasury $20,000. This amount will be increased each year until 
the sum of $25,000 is reached, at which it is to remain. 

In accordance with conditions, imposed by the United States and 
accepted by the State, no portion of the United States gifts may 
be applied directly or indirectly to the erection or maintenance of 
buildings or other property. The United States funds, are there- 
fore, practically confined in their use to the payment of the direct 
expenses for instruction and all other expenses must then be borne 
by the State. For some years the State has made no appro- 
priation for repairs of buildings and current expenses. To cover 
these items it has been necessary to use a small fund saved 
in the early days of the college. This fund is now nearly exhausted 
and the State must decide what course is to be taken in the future 
in reference to these items, especially since the recent growth of the 
college will increase the expense of its maintenance. It should be 
noted that w T ithin recent years, State legislation has cut down the 
annual income of the college by about $13,000. 

In the estimate submitted I have stated, in a conservative manner, 
what the college needs. I have used care to make my estimates 
accurate and have reduced them to the lowest limits. It should be 
remembered that the State has made very small appropriations for 
several years previous to this time. 

Since the last meeting of the board of trustees, expenses have 
been reduced as much as possible in order to decrease the deficiency 
reported then. The treasurer's report will show that the deficiency 
has been cut down by about one thousand dollars in that time. 


In speaking of the needs of the college, I have already made an 
estimate of one thousand dollars for a general office and of thirty- 
five thousand dollars for the drill hall. In addition to these, I pre- 
sent the following. 

General Repairs, — Every building upon the campus needs some 
immediate expenditure. A list of some of the more pressing 
repairs is found in the report of the professor of civil engineering. 
We have been obliged to make some repairs in anticipation of an 


appropriation ; and a considerable sum of money is every year 
required for repairs that cannot be anticipated. We shall need for 
repairs, during the next two years, $5,000. 

Current Expenses. — Experience for a number of years has shown 
that current expenses amount to about five thousand dollars a year. 
With the increase in the number of students, it is not likely that 
we shall be able to reduce this amount. 

No appropriation has been made by the State for tlrjs purpose 
for some time. As a result the college treasury is now somewhat 
in debt and must continue to be increasingly so, unless appropria- 
tion is made for this purpose. For two years we shall need, for 
this purpose, $10,000. 

Insurance. — The sum needed for insurance on the college build- 
ings and their contents is $3,400. 

Postage, Stationery, Printing.— Postage on the reports and cata* 
logues alone amounts to $350 ; stationery and postage on corre- 
spondence amounts to as much more. The cost of stationery 
programs, circulars and other occasional publications will increase 
the estimate for this purpose to $1,000. 


In calling attention a year ago to the need of changes in Oak 
Hall, the dormitory building. I stated that it was in strong and 
substantial condition. During the year this statement has proved 
to be incorrect. The foundations have so given way that it will 
be necessary to rebuild a considerable portion of the front wall, in 
order to make the building safe. The interior has been patched 
and repatched until the building is extremely unsatisfactory and 
should be taken out and reconstructed. New water closets are an 
absolute necessity. For these repairs, I estimate that $6,000 will 
be necessary. 


The students are charged for the heating of public buildings but 
the receipts have never been sufficient to cover the expenditure. 
The college has for a number of years past paid from its income 
about a thousand dollars a year for fuel. It is not practicable to 
continue to do so nor can it be properly done in accordance with 


the agreement between the State and the general government. I 
estimate that $1,000 will be needed for fuel during the next two 

The other estimates included in the following list are ex- 
plained in the department reports. 


A General Office $1,000 00 

B Postage, etc 1,000 00 

C Repairs to Oak Hall 6,000 00 

D Drill Hall ". '. 35,000 00 

E Electrical Engineering 10,000 00 

F Chemistry 3,051 16 

G Natural History 2,750 00 

H Agriculture and Animal Industry 2,100 00 

I Horticulture 2,725 00 

J Library 5,000 00 

K Military Science 3,879 00 

L Civil Engineering 1 ,515 00 

M Mechanical Engineering 2,200 00 

N Physics 1,000 00 

O Civics 200 00 

P Grounds '. 2,000 00 

Q Fuel... • 1,000 00 

R General Repairs 5,000 00 

S Current Expenses 10,000 00 

T Insurance 3,400 00 

Total $98,820 16 


To the Trustees of the Maine State College : 

The Treasurer of the College has the honor to submit the following 
report' concerning the financial condition of the institution. 

The Endowment Funds are invested at the present time as follows : 

Coburn Bequest, 

State of Maine bonds at 4% interest. 
United States Land Grant Fund, 

State of Maine bonds at 5% interest. 
Accumulated Interest on Land Grant Fund, 

Security Loan and Trust Company bonds at 6% interest,. . 

Knox and Lincoln Railroad 5% bonds, 

Trenton, N. J., Passenger Railway 6% bonds, 

Portland and Rumf ord Falls Railroad 5% bonds, 

The Coburn Loan Fund, 

College treasury 

Loan ed , - 

The Frank Kidder Scholarship Fund 

Bangor Savings Bank 

The Kittridge Loan Fund, 

Bangor Savings Bank, 


$3,000 00 

1,000 00 

1,000 00 

1,000 00 

70 00 

30 00 

675 00 

322 96 

505 00 

$100,000 00 

118,300 00 

6,000 00 

100 00 

675 00 

827 96 

The Income of the College from all sources for the next year will be 
as follows : 

Coburn Bequest, 

Land Grant Fund 

Security Loan and Trust Company, 

Knox and Lincoln Bonds, 

Trenton Passenger Railroad Company 

Portland and Rumford Falls Railway Company, 

United States— Morrill Act , 

United States— Hatch Act for Experiment Station, 
From inspection of fertilizers, Experiment Station 

From other sources, Experiment Station, 

Rent of houses on campus, 

$4,000 00 

5,915 00 

180 00 

50 00 

60 00 

50 00 

20,000 00 

15,000 00 

850 00 

325 93 

614 00 

$53,044 93 



General Statement of Receipts and Expenditures for the Year 
Ending June 30, 1894. 

RECEIPTS FROM JUNE 30, 1893, TO JUNE 30, 1894. 

Balance on hand June 30, 1893, 

State appropriations, 

United States appropriation under the Hatch Act, . 
United States appropriation under the Morrill Act,. 

Interest on City of Bangor honds, 


W. H. Jordan, Director, for Experiment Station 

Interest on deposits, etc., 

For coal, 


From students, for board, etc, 

Work shop, 

Experiment Station, water supply, 

General repairs, 

Orono Savings Bank, for investment, 

Bangor City bonds, . 

Interest on land grant bonds, 

Interest on Portland and Rumford Falls Railroad bonds,. 

Interest on Knox and Lincoln Railroad bonds, 

From M. C. Fernald, 

Sundry small receipts, 

Horticultural Department, College 

Horticultural Department, Grounds, 


Department of Physics, general account,, 

From Mrs. Henry E. Prentiss, 

Interest on Coburn Fund, 


Department of Agriculture, 

Athletics, , 

* Boarding- house, 

Botany and entomology, Experiment Station,...., 

* F. T. Burpee, wages as janitor, 

Chemical laboratory, Experiment Station, 

Apparatus for Civil Engineering Department,.... 

Apparatus for Department of Chemistry, , 

Advertising circular, 

Chemical Laboratory, College, 

Construction of dairy building, 

* For diplomas, 

General Expenses— College, 

General Expenses— Experiment Station, 

General Expenses — machine account , 

Construction of embankment for target practice, , 

Field and feeding, Experiment Station, 

On account of the farm, 

* For fuel, 

Foundry account, 

Furnishing Wingate Hall, 

Fertilizer control, Experiment Station, 

Construction of flag pole, 

Field day expenses, 

Fuel account, Experiment Station, 

Horticultural Department, Experiment Station,.. 

Horticultural Department, College, 

Horticultural Department, grounds 

* Incidentals,.. 

Interest and discount, 

Repairs on President's house, 

Installing electric lights, 

Library, Experiment Station 

Library, for Department of Agriculture, 

Library, for Department of Chemistry, 

Library, for Department of Civil Engineering, ... 

Library, for Department of Economics, 

Library, for Department of Horticulture, 



General Statement. 


Library, for Department of Literature, 

Library, for Department of Mechanical Engineering-, 

Library, for Department of Metaphysics, , 

Library, for Department of Military Seience, 

Library, for Department of Mathematics and A stronomy, 

Library, for Department of Natural History. 

Library, for Department of Physics, 

Library, for general expenses, » 

* Lighting of Wingate Hall, 

* Lighting of Y. M. C. A. room,. , 

* Lighting of Oak Hall, 

Lighting of Work Shop, 

* For text books 

Electrical Engineering, 

* Military Department, , 


Apparatus" for Mechanical Engineering Department, 

Meteorology, Experiment Station, 

Apparatus for Department of Natural History, 

Printing, Experiment Station, 

Apparatus for Department of Physics, 

A pparatus for Photography, 

Construction of potting and storage room, Horticultural Department, , 

Repairs on Q. T. V. House, , 

General repairs, 

Repairs and construction, Experiment Station, , 

Repairs of Chemical Labratory, , 

Repairs on Coburn Hall, , 

Repairs on gymnasium, 

* Reading room, for periodicals, 

Stationery and postage, College, 

Sationery and postage, Experiment Station, , 

For running expenses of shop, 

Travelling expenses, Experiment Station, , 

Trustee expenses, College,. 

Veterinary Science, Experiment Station, 

Water supply, College, 

Water supply, Experiment Station, 

Waterworks construction, 

World's Fair, general account, 

World's Fair, Experiment Station, 

For advertising, — 

Construction of janitor's barn 

General account, Experiment Station, 

♦Personal accounts 

Department of Mathematics and Astronomy, 

For furniture and fixtures, , 

Repairs on farm house, 

Repairs on boarding house, 

Re-investment of funds, , 

♦For special repairs Oak Hall, 


For general account, Department of Physics, 

Preparation and binding of meteorological reports, 

For heating apparatus, Experiment Station 

Singing books for chapel, 

* Kidder Scholarship 

Repairs on Oak Hall, , 

♦Incidentals, Department of Chemistry, 

Repairs on heating apparatus, .* 

World's Fair, Mechanical Engineering Department 

College salaries, . 
Station salaries, . 

♦*Balance due Treasurer,. 

$18 90 
14 70 
6 90 

41 80 
8 98 

68 80 

38 95 
291 46 

27 35 

2 50 

323 20 

14 70 
150 00 

13 50 
787 62 

8 95 
1,785 26 

107 02 

548 83 

1,397 65 

447 63 

51 11 
396 04 

38 5S 
455 07 
749 19 

42 90 

9 45 
71 15 

107 18 
174 30 
160 80 
799 09 
226 34 
329 56 

52 26 
35 49 

150 00 

19 00 

9 55 

16 06 

500 94 

302 50 

493 44 

157 21 

156 28 

6 00 

42 4a 

5 00 

3,241 96 

219 99 

980 00 

125 01 

60 00 

1,020 91 

50 85 

30 00 
86 71 

2 50 

31 74 
10 00 

$45,229 98 
25,205 04 
8,730 00 

$79,165 02 
5,608 01 

$73,557 01 

HENRY LORD, Auditor. 
GEO. H. HAMLIN, Treasurer. 

♦Accounts thus marked are not expense accounts. The money is paid back by 
students, in term bills. 

♦♦This balance due the treasurer, will be paid from boarding house and fuel 
bills due the college, but uncollected. 



Account with the United States Government Appropriation, 
under the Morrill Act, for the Year Ending June SO, 1894. 


Balance unexpended June 30, 1893, 

Received from United States, July 25, 1893 ,.., 

Department of Agriculture: 

Salaries, , 

Text books and reference books, 

Mechanic Arts: 

Salaries, . , 


Text books and reference books, 


Salaries, . 

Text books and reference books,.... 

Mathematical Science: 



Text books and reference books, 

Natural or Physical Sciences : 

Salaries, ... 


Text books and reference books, 

Economic Science : 


Text books and reference books, 

Total expended during year, 

Balance remaining unexpended July 1, 1894, 

$672 03 
19,000 00 

2,566 66 
36 67 

5,899 97 
T23 75 
32 32 

1,000 00 
359 06 

1,024 95 

156 28 

8 98 

6,347 99 
328 23 
131 09 

1,000 00 
42 30 

$19,672 03 

2,603 33 

6,056 04 
1,359 06 

1,790 21 

6,807 31 
1,042 30 

$19,658 25 
13 78 

$19,672 03 

Account with the Experiment Station for the Year Ending 
June 30, 1894. 


Balance on hand, June 30, 18u3 

Amount received from W. H. Jordan, Director, 

Amount received from Fertilizer Control, 

Amount received from U. S. Government, Hatch Act, 


Botany and Entomology, 

Chemical laboratory, 

Expense account, 

Field and feeding, 

Fertilizer Control, 

Department of Horticulture, 



Stationery and postage, 

Traveling expenses, 


Veterinary Science, 


World's Fair 

Water supply, 

Heating apparatus, 


Construction and repairs, 

Balance on hand June 30, 1894, 

$586 62 

175 05 

930 00 

15,000 00 

25 35 
215 13 
144 94 

757 04 

1,328 74 

925 92 

107 02 

1,397 65 

160 80 

226 34 

226 99 

52 26 

94 40 

16 06 

150 00 

1,020 91 

8,730 00 

749 19 

$16,691 67 

16,328 74 
362 93 

$16,6S1 67 

In connection with this account attention is called to the fact that the amount 
received from the dealers in fertilizers $930 is less than the cost of doing the work 
$1,328.74 by $398.74. This has been paid out of college funds, and an appropriation 
should be made by the State for this amount as the Experiment Station funds 
cannot lawfully be used for this purpose. 



Receipts from June 30, 1894, to December 1, 1894. 

Chemical laboratory, 

Civil Engineering, 

Diploma account, 

Experiment Station general account,... 

Endowment Fund, 


Farm account, 

General expense— College, 

Horticultural Department, College, 

Kidder Scholarship, 

Rent account, , 

Shop account 

Students, account of board etc., 

Text books, . 

Treasurer's notes, 

United States, on account of Morrill Act 
United States, on account of Hatch Act . 

$15 00 

5 00 

8 oo 

162 70 

3,217 50 

101 88 

086 95 


84 96 

62 06 

120 00 

10 00 

2,536 71 

911 00 

9,000 00 

20,000 00 

7,500 00 

$44,422 02 




Treasurer's notes, 

* Boarding house, 

Chemical laboratory, 

Civil Engineering, 

* Diploma account, 

Department of Chemistry, 

Department of Natural History, 

Department of Physics, 

Experiment Station General Account, 

Endowment Fund, 

Electrical Engineering, « 


Farm account, 

Field day, 

General Expense, College, 

Horticultural Department College, 

Horticultural Department, Grounds, 

Horticultural Department, Potting and Storage Room, 

* Incidentals, 


Interest and discount, 

* Light, 


Mineralogy, . 

* Military Account 

Meterological account, 

Mechanical Engineering, 

Mathematics and Astronomy, 


Prentiss Prize, paid by Mrs. H. M. Prentiss 

Repairs, general 

Repairs on President's house, 

Repairs, Oak Hall, 

Repairs, Laboratory, 

Repairs, Wingate Hall, 

* Special repairs Oak Hall, 

Shop account, 


Reading Room, 

Stationery and Postage, 


* Text books 

Trustee account, 


Experiment Station : 



Postage and stationery, . 

Freight and express 

Chemical supplies, 

$131 77 

13 75 

.0,000 00 

1,923 96 

6 63 

4 85 

42 91 

127 98 

28 14 

260 10 

239 04 

30 00 

3 75 

1,327 22 

2,054 10 

43 25 

542 13 

123 61 

97 73 

66 54 

306 69 

320 00 

40 70 

104 75 

163 65 

1 15 

783 09 

2 20 

8 76 

18 35 


30 00 

174 67 

69 00 

52 50 

25 78 

2 75 

34 20 

373 69 

81 65 

28 10 

310 91 

9,025 61 

685 47 

137 00 

36 05 

3,313 07 

323 93 

20 00 

66 58 

85 30 



Expenditures— Concluded. 

Experiment Station— Co ncluded. 

Seeds, plants and sundry supplies 


Feeding stuffs, 

Furniture and fixtures, 

Traveling expenses, 

Contingent expenses, 

Building and repairs, 

Balance due Treasurer, June 30, 1894, . 

Balance on hand December 1, 1894,. . . . 

$37 62 

13 50 

5 00 

169 42 

25 10 

184 20 

137 63 

34,266 44 

5,6G8 01 

39,874 45 

4,547 57 

$44,422 02 

* Accounts thus marked are not expense accounts. The money is paid back, by 
students, in term bills. 


President A. W. Harris, 

Sir — During the present year some changes have been made in 
the courses in rhetoric and modern languages, mainly in the 
arrangement of' studies. By these changes the work in French 
and German has been improved, as the student now has a daily 
recitation in these subjects instead of one on alternate days, as 
was formerly the case. A further improvement has been made by 
having the freshmen begin French with their first term instead of 
with the opening of the second half of the year ; also by allowing 
such of the freshmen as have had a good preliminary training in 
French to elect German in place of French during their first year. 
A still further improvement might be made by requiring the French 
which we now give during our first half year to be made a condi- 
tion of admission. Nearly all our high schools have courses in 
French, and to require the elements of the grammar and fifty or 
sixty pages of easy prose would not lessen the number in our 
entering classes. Under present conditions, about one-half the 
men have done as much work in French in the academy or the 
high school as we do by the middle of the freshman year ; the 
other half have done nothing. The result is, that the better trained 
men have to be kept back, in order that fairly good work may be 
done with the rest of the class. I earnestly recommend that ele- 
mentary French be made a requirement of admission. 

In the course in English some changes have been made. The 
work in rhetoric now extends throughout the freshman year — a 
material increase in the time devoted to the study. This increase 
makes it possible to secure more practice in theme writing than 
hitherto. There is, however, still too little work done. The study 


of English ought to be required throughout the college course. At 
present no work in English, except practice in declaiming, is done 
in the sophomore year. Readings and declamations ought to be 
required of the freshmen, and frequent themes of the sophomores ; 
but this cannot be done with the present teaching force. 

A change has been made in the order of the rhetorical exercises r 
so that the sophomores will in future have their prize exhibi- 
tion in December instead of in June as in former years. This 
change will, in some degree, relieve the pressure attendant upon 
the preparation for Commencement. The seniors will be required 
hereafter to write and deliver at least four public orations. 

In closing let me call your attention to the fact that I am 
obliged to meet seventy-three students at one time in rhetoric ; 
also that I met over sixty in elementary French until Lieut. Hersey 
kindly relieved me of a part of the class. Work done under such 
conditions cannot be successful. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Professor of Rhetoric and Modern Languages. 


President A. W. Harris, 

Sir — There have been few changes of importance in the work 
of this department since my last report. English History for the 
juniors, two hours each week during the fall term, has been sub- 
stituted for the General History of the freshmen year, and the 
time hitherto devoted to Logic has been somewhat shortened and a 
brief course in Psychology introduced as an equivalent. 

For the students in the Scientific course under the new cur- 
riculum, historical study and investigation form a continuous line 
throughout the junior and senior years, and, perhaps, may be 
regarded as the characteristic work of this course. 

During the past year I have given instruction in Political Econ- 
omy, Constitutional Law and History, Business Law, English and 
American Literature, General History, English History, History of 
Civilization, History of Philosophy, Psychology and Logic. 

In these branches, I am glad to state, the different classes have 
shown a good degree of interest and made satisfactory progress. 

The wants of the Department, from a financial standpoint, are 
few. A set of maps, and a few reference books, costing altogether 
not more than two hundred dollars, w r ould meet all present needs. 

The one specific recommendation I have to make is, that our 
library be made a depositary of all the documents printed by the 
national and state governments, and, if this cannot be effected, to have 
the most complete collection possible of these publications made 
and maintained here. Much of this material is of the greatest 
value to this department and will be of increasing value in the com- 
ing years ; even that which is apparently without use at the 
present, may serve as a mine of information to future students and 
investigators. Hence I earnestly recommend that, as completely 


as may be, public reports and documents of every nature and 
description be secured for our library while they are available. 

Very respectfully, 


Professor of Civics. 


President A. W. Harris, 

Sir — During the past two years the instruction in the depart- 
ment of chemistry has been improving. No radical changes have 
been made in the course, but much benefit will result from the 
increased time given to the work in the laboratory ; for, not only 
may a larger number of important determinations be introduced, 
but some time can be devoted to the preparation of important 
organic compounds. 

The class room work is also greatly benefited by the new 
arrangement of studies. Some subjects which were but lightly 
touched upon will hereafter receive their proper share of attention. 
More of the instruction in advanced chemistry will be given in the 
shape of lectures than was heretofore possible or profitable. 

The students under my instruction during the year 1893 have 
been the sophomores in general chemistry and the seniors in organic 
and advanced chemistry. Mr. Colby has had the juniors in 
advanced inorganic chemistry. 

The qualitative and quantitative laboratories have been open 
daily from 8 a. m. to 4.30 p. m. Mr. Colby, has, as usual, 
given the senior class ten weeks' drill in mineralogy and a short 
course in photography. 

At the commencement in June, 1893, the following students 
graduated in the Chemical Course : Walter D. Jack, presenting a 
thesis on "Milk, its composition and analysis" and Hiram Wil- 
liams, presenting a thesis on "Urine, its composition and analysis." 

During the year 1894 further changes were introduced into the 
course ; the most beneficial of which undoubtedly consists in the 
transfer of general chemistry from the sophomore to the freshman 


Owing to the fact that the entering class was very large and that 
the sophomore class were also to take general chemistry it became 
necessary to divide the united classes into two sections, one of 
which, entirely composed of freshmen, recited to myself, and the 
other composed of the sophomores and a few freshmen recited to 
Mr. Colby. Experiments were performed before the united sec- 

I have held recitations' for the senior class in organic and 
advanced chemistry — and have had a class in elementary organic 
chemistry consisting of those sophomores not in the engineering 
courses. The instruction given in this case was entire] y in the 
shape of notes. On alternate days this class recited to Mr. Colby 
in "Chemical Theory." 

I have also given a short course of lectures on laboratory pro- 
cesses to the senior class. Classes in qualitative and quantitative 
analysis have been carried on daily in the laboratory from 7.45 a. 
m. to 4.30 p. m. 

Few changes have been made in text-books, the most notable 
being the adoption of Serres' Principes cle Chimie in three volumes 
in the place of Naquet's Principes de Chimie and the adoption 
of Medicus' Einleitung in die Chemische Analyse for the more 
advanced students. 

At the Commencement in June 1894 the following students 
graduated in the Chemical Course : Jesse A. Gray, presenting a 
thesis on "The Manufacture of Chemical Pulp," and Herbert Mur- 
ray, presenting a thesis on "Portland Cements, their composition 
and analysis." 


Owing to the increase in the number of students and the new 
processes that are continually introduced into scientific research it 
becomes necessary to add a number of pieces of new apparatus to 
our present stock. 

It will be necessary to get some special apparatus for pharma- 
ceutical work as well as a collection of raw drugs, manufactured 
articles, books for laboratory reference, etc. I request an appro- 
priation of $1000 to cover the expense of such an outfit. 

Before closing my report I would draw attention to the fact that 
the Laboratory Building is the oldest one on the campus and that 


it is in great need of repairs. The cellar, in particular, should 
have a cement floor, the drainage should be thoroughly overhauled 
and renovated, the piping carefully examined and put in good 
order, the general laboratory with its work tables, fume and steam 
closets requires a little attention at the hands of both carpenter 
and plumber and this I may truthfully add is the case with the 
building generally. The estimated cost of general and incidental 
repairs amounts to about $400. 

Respectfully submitted, 


Professor of Chemistry. 


President A. W. Harris, 

Sm : — I submit my fourth annual report for Physics and first 
for Electrical Engineering. 


The work in Physics since the last report has not differed mate- 
rially from that of former years. Lack of funds prevented me 
from carrying out certain lines of work in the laboratory which I 
had anticipated and which I hope to take up in the coming year. 
The work in the class room has been successful. This year I have 
changed from the lecture to the text-book method and am using 
Sheldon's revision of Olmsted's College Philosophy. I am not 
prepared as yet to decide upon the relative merits of the two sys- 

Two new courses in advanced work have been in operation this 
term : — A course in Mathematical Physics — Merriman's Least 
Squares, — is taken by two post-graduate students and two under- 
graduates. A course in general physical experimentation, taken 
by a post-graduate student, consists in the study of modern labor- 
atory manuals, accompanied by the working out of experiments. 

Future plans and needs. The major part of the courses now 
offered in physics are arranged with especial reference to the future 
work of the student in the three Engineering courses. This is 
proper but I very earnestly desire that opportunities shall be offered 
to students and graduates who wish to study physics for its own 
sake. In order to carry on work of this character apparatus of a 
rather expensive nature is required. To complete certain investiga- 
tions in Optics already begun, I ask for an appropriation of $300. 
The present freshman class is unusually large. In order to accom- 


modate the number who will probably do laboratory work next year, 
it will be necessary to duplicate much of the apparatus. To do this 
will require about $200. For repairs, running expenses and new 
instruments will be needed $250. 

Appropriation desired for departments of Physics : 

1. Repairs of apparatus and replenishing stock $100 00 

2. Duplicating instruments for larger classes 100 00 

3. Construction of instruments for demonstrations in 

Mechanics, etc 100 00 

4. For printing Laboratory notes, etc 100 00 

5. For apparatus in Optics for advanced work 200 00 

6. For tables and extra cases 50 00 

7. For class-room apparatus for experiments 200 00 

8. For Chemical balance 50 00 

9. For apparatus in Acoustic experiments 100 00 

$1,000 00 
Electrical Engineering. 

When I was elected a member of the faculty, it was with the 
understanding that in connection with my duties as professor of 
physics, I should at the proper time arrange for a course in electri- 
cal engineering. I have accordingly planned the work so as to 
include as much electrical practice as my time and that of the stu- 
dents, as well as the supply of apparatus would permit. During 
the year 1892-'93 there were six students who did work in the sub- 
ject ; in 1893-'94, there were ten. The scope of the work was at 
that time somewhat enlarged, and two classes were formed in con- 
nection with the laboratory work. 

In the spring of 1894, it seemed that the time had come to estab- 
lish a complete course in electrical engineering. The Trustees 
authorized the appointment of an instructor, and Mr. E. P. Chapin, 
a graduate of Cornell University in the class of 1893, was elected 
to that position. The course was fairly well advertised, and work 
was begun at the opening of the fall term, 1894. The number of 
students registered for that course has more than justified the wis- 
dom of its establishment. As well as can be estimated on account 
of the fact that the underclassmen have not all selected their courses, 
there are about forty students in this department. 

We have at present sufficient apparatus to carry a small class 
through a little more than one term of the junior year. The course 


was organized, not with the necessary equipments, but in the 
expectation that the State would provide for work of this nature, 
when it became evident that there was a demand for it. Without 
some provision for the salary of the instructor, and a generous 
appropriation for equipment, the course must of necessity cease to 

I therefore ask that the trustees petition the legislature for the 
sum of $10,000 for the course in electrical engineering. No 
amount less than this will put the department on a standing with 
the other departments. 

The following is the apparatus we shall need and estimated 
prices of the same : 

Arc light dynamo Si, 000 00 

Incandescent light dynamo 2,000 00 

Experimental dynamos and motors 1,500 00 

Transformers 500 00 

Storage batteries 300 00 

Duplicating apparatus . . . 500 00 

Ballistic galvanometers. . , 150 00 

Earth inductor 100 00 

Galvanometers 100 00 

Thomson balance 500 00 

Electro-dynamometers 100 00 

Volt-meters and ammeters 300 00 

Small transformers. . . . ■ 50 00 

Condensers 75 00 

Statical instruments for lecture room 300 00 

Common batteries 50 00 

Standard cells 30 00 

Photometry equipment 70 00 

Quadrant electrometer 50 00 

Dead beat galvanometer % 60 00 

Portable testing set 125 00 

Permeameter 75 00 

Work in fitting up. 325 00 

Furniture and fitting (including dynamo house) 500 00 

Wheatstone's Bridges 500 00 

Instrument case 100 00 


Speed indicators $75 00 

Running expenses (including repairs, managing machines 

etc) .- 565 00 

$10,000 00 

It is proposed with this outfit to establish an electric light plant, 

which will light the buildings and campus. This would be of the 

greatest practical benefit to the students, and at the same time 

would save expenses in lighting. 

Respectfully submitted, 


Professor of Physics. 



President A. W. Harris, 

Sir : — I have the honor to submit the following report of the 
Department of Natural History for the two years ending with 

Class Work. 

Since my last report there has heen an entire reorganization of 
the work of my department. The office of Assistant in Natural 
History has been abolished. Advanced human physiology and 
laboratory work taught by the Assistant as a freshman study in 
all courses has been dropped. Elementary human physiology is 
now required as an entrance study to all courses. Advanced 
human physiology has been transferred to the junior year and not 
required in the engineering courses. 

Botany formerly taught to the whole freshman class has been 
dropped from the engineering courses and transferred to the depart- 
ment of Horticulture. No provision has been made for the herba- 
rium and museum work done by the assistant. All purely natural 
history studies have been dropped from the engineering courses, 
and the natural history work in the chemical course has been largely 
reduced. Geology for all courses, have been transferred to the 
first term of the senior year, so that special science students may 
supplement the elementary courses by more advanced work in the 
second term. 

Provision has been made for specialists by electives in advanced 
science and the organization of courses in preparatory medicine and 
pharmacy. A general reduction in the time devoted to recitations 
and laboratory practice has been made as shown by the revised 
courses of study and scheme of recitations. 

maine state collect e. 49 

Original Work. 
Besides conducting recitations and supervising laboratory prac- 
tice, I have done work in the following directions : (a) Investi- 
gations in economic botany and entomology in pursuance of station 
duties, (b) Examining and cataloguing museum and herbarium 
material on hand and acquired, (c) Preparation of microscopic 
slides to illustrate natural history, (d) Collecting plant and ani- 
mal specimens found in the State, (e) Answering letters of inquiry 
and determining objects of natural history for persons in and out of 
the State, (f) Preparation of articles upon natural history for 
science journals, newspapers and for bulletin of the department, 
(g) Preparation and delivery of lectures upon natural history 
topics. The following are titles of articles for the last two years. 


A New Achorutes ; Entomological News, May 1893, illustrated 
by 6 figures. A New Papirius ; Entomological News, February 

1893, illustrated by 3 figures. The Angoumois Grain Moth, 
Maine Farmer, December 21, 1893. Bulletin No. 2, Laboratory 
of Natural History, January 1893. Sixth report as Botanist 
and Entomologist for the experiment station, 1893. 

Notes on a species of Simocephalus ; American Naturalist, May 

1894. Steps on the Life History of the Earthworm, Cadet, May 1894. 
Contributions to the Lichens of Maine ; I, Bulletin Torrey Botanical 
Club, Vol. 21, p. 389. A New Seira ; Psyche, October 1894. 
A New Lepidocyrtus ; Entomological News, October 1894. Two 
New Species of Entomobrya ; Entomological News, November 
1894. The Carpet Beetle; Lewiston Journal, August 18, 1894. 

Herbarium Work. 

Since my last report a catalogue of the flowering plants of the 
Blake Herbarium has been prepared and issued as Bulletin No. 2, 
Part I, from the Laboratory of Natural History, Part II of the 
same bulletin being a contribution to the Flora of Maine including 
flowering plants collected by Mr. Briggs and myself. The mosses 
and lichens of the Blake Herbarium together with specimens found 


about Orono by myself have been elaborated and mounted by Mr. 
Briggs and myself. The duplicates in the Blake Herbarium 
amounting to 10,000 specimens have been arranged in fascicles 
and will be issued with special labels to such academies, semina- 
ries and high schools in the State as wish them. One set of 1800 
species has already been delivered to the Bangor High School and 
others are in preparation. 

Accessions to Herbarium. 

Quite a number of cryptogams and flowering plants have been 
added by Mr. Briggs and myself. Important collections amount- 
ing to several hundred have been obtained by exchange. The cur- 
rent fascicles of Ellis and Everhard's North American Fungi ; Cum- 
mings and Seymour's North American Lichens ; Underwood's 
Hepaticse, and Halsted's Weeds have been purchased. A set of 
Brendel's Plant Models and a set of Collins' Maine Marine Algae 
were purchased. 


The accessions to the museum have been quite meagre during 
the last two years. The important accessions are as follows : A 
collection of Maine birds' nests and eggs by Robert Fernald of the 
class of '92 ; a set of photographs of large mammals that were 
exhibited in the Kansas State Building at Chicago ; about 50 slides 
for the microscope showing structure of invertebrate animals — 
imported ; the collections made in Penobscot Bay by myself. 

Importance of Museum. 
The museum is a great attraction to visitors and a constant means 
of instruction to students of all courses. It is much frequented by 
visitors at commencement time and on field days. I would 
strongly urge the importance of completing the collection of State 
animals as rapidly as possible. 

Donations Solicited. 
I would respectfully solicit donations of minerals, plants or 
animals for the collections. Specimens donated will be properly 
labeled with the donor's name and placed on exhibition. Impor- 
tant collections if requested by the donor will so far as possible 
be assigned special space. 

maine state college. 51 

World's Fair Exhibit. 

The following articles illustrative of students' work in Natural 
History were exhibited at Chicago in the Educational Department 
of the Liberal Arts Building. 

(a) Collection of drawings illustrative of free hand work and 
designing, (b) Collection of colored drawings of wild plants 
by students in botany, (c) Collection of drawings of crypto- 
gams by students in cryptogamic botany, (d) Collections of 
dried plants by members of the freshman class, (e) Plant records 
showing work done by freshmen in descriptive botany, (f ) Draw- 
ings of invertebrate animals by students in zoology, (g) Students' 
collection of cryptogams, (h) Dissections of invertebrates by 
students in zoology. 

As Station Entomologist, I prepared and displayed in the ento- 
mological alcove in the exhibit of the office of Experiment Stations 
in the Agricultural Building at Chicago, an exhibit, showing the life 
history of Trypeta pomonella, Walsh. 

During the month of August, 1893, I acted by your request as 
demonstrator in entomology in the above mentioned exhibit. 


Laboratory — For microphoto apparatus and supplies, 
$150.00 ; for slides for the stereopticon to illustrate 
lectures in botany, zoology, and entomology, $150.00 ; 
special reference books for the laboratory, $100.00 ; 
desk for laboratory, $50.00; additional accessories for 
microscopes, $150.00 ; type writer for the department, 
$100.00 ; total $700 00 

Herbarium — To purchase current fascicles or plants, 

a plant catalogue, botanical charts, models, microscopic 

preparations and material for preserving and mounting 

plants 150 00 

Museum — To extend the collection of Maine animals, 
$500.00 ; to purchase alcohol, jars and other appliances 
for museum work, $100.00 ; total 600 00 

For Exploring the State for plant, animal, mineral 
and geological specimens for the cabinets 300 00 

Geology — To purchase models for illustrating geolog- 
ical principles 1 ,000 00 

Total $2,700 00 

52 maine state college. 

Detailed Explanation of Estimates. 

Laboratory^ — Students who take laboratory practice should be 
provided with suitable apparatus to do good work and should have 
opportunity to become acquainted with the apparatus found in the 
best natural history laboratories. The laboratory has no appara- 
tus for photographing microscopic objects or suitable apparatus for 
drawing larger objects. This apparatus is not only needed for 
student work but would aid me very much in making record of 
original observations and be a great economy of time. The amount 
asked for this purpose, $150.00, is meant to cover the apparatus 
and necessary outfit and would include an enlarging camera which 
would be useful in making charts of small objects for class illustra- 

The College has a good stereopticon, but the department has 
not been able to use it on account of having no fund to purchase 
slides. For illustrating lectures in botany, zoology, entomology 
and geology great use might be made of the stereopticon in the 
class room as well as in public lecturing. To defray the expenses 
of the stereopticon for class use and to purchase slides, I ask the 
modest sum of $150.00. 

The department is hampered by a want of reference books not 
found in the general library. There are reference books that 
should be kept in the laboratory and constitute a part of its equip- 
ment as much as microscopes and other apparatus. The labora- 
tory is meagrely equipped in this direction, and the sum of 
$100.00 is asked to increase these facilities for instruction. 

The laboratory needs a table with storage locked drawers in 
which to keep small pieces of apparatus. A table of this kind 
would cost about $50.00. 

We need for microscopic work an iris diaphragm Abbe condenser, 
tripple nose piece and a microtome. There should also be double 
nose pieces to the working microscopes. For this purpose and for 
current supplies of chemicals and small apparatus I estimate 
$150.00. The department must prepare many lists, labels and 
manuscripts, and could make much use of a typewriter. There 
should also be a duplicating attachment. For the typewriter and 
attachments I ask $100.00. 

Herbarium — Several current fascicles of plants spoken of under 
accessions have been subscribed for and money will be needed to 


pay for them, amounting to about fifty dollars. These collec- 
tions are absolutely necessary to keep abreast with current scientific 
research. There is a card catalogue of current literature on botany 
being issued by the Cambridge Botanical Supply Company that we 
should have. Some botanical charts for illustration of cryptogamic 
plants are needed, also additional models, and microscopic slides 
of bacteria and other low forms, besides labels, mounting paper, 
genus covers, etc., for herbarium work. For all of the above I 
ask $15.0.00. 

Museum — I cannot urge too strongly the importance of bring- 
ing together at the college a complete collection of the animals of 
the State. This is a work of time and should go on as rapidly as 
possible. The larger mammals of the State are growing scarce. 
The museum has not a male moose, nor a buck deer, nor a fawn. 
First class mounted specimens would cost $350.00. There should 
be a family of beaver, otter, mink, black cat, sable, weasels, rac- 
coons, hedge hogs, wood chucks, bobcats, lynxes and the other 
small animals, besides a complete collection of the birds of the 
State. The college has already a small start and to visitors and 
students the museum is already an attraction. There should also 
be in the museum for the purpose of instruction more of the exotic 
types referred to in the text books used by students. I feel like 
multiplying the estimate $600.00 by ten, but strongly urge that 
what is asked be granted. Having funds, one can often get good 
material at a bargain. 

Explorations — The State College should take the lead in looking 
np the resources of the State. At present this work is largely in 
the hands of amateurs and summer visitors. It is not pleasant to 
have visitors come into one's door yard and make discoveries that 
should have been made by home explorers. By explorations much 
material is gathered for the collections and for use in the labora- 
tory. The herbarium of State plants, the collections of insects, 
and marine animals are far from complete, and should be aug- 
mented. The material collected by the department has a deeper 
interest than that donated or purchased. By collecting specimens 
the Professor is better prepared to give information and instruc- 
tions as he acquaints himself with the specimens in nature ; $300 
is asked for exploring. 


Geology — Now that geology is the only natural science study 
taken by all students it should be properly illustrated by casts and 
charts. To purchase such I ask $1,000. 



Professor of Natural History. 


President A. W. Harris, 

Sir : I have the honor to report that in accordance with your 
recommendation and the subsequent action of the Board of Trustees, 
I assumed the duties of Professor of Agriculture about September 1, 
1894. In entering into this position I desire to recall the fact that 
the Department of Agriculture had been for the previous thirteen 
years under the immediate able direction of the late Professor Walter 
Balentine, and that during that time this department very greatly 
increased in equipment and efficiency. Within the time of Pro- 
fessor Balentine's connection with the college, his department was 
strengthened by the building of Coburn Hall, by the creation of 
two allied departments, Horticulture and Animal Industry, with the 
consequent construction of forcing houses and a dairy building, 
and by the addition of professional instruction in Veterinary 
Science. Large additions were also made to the equipment of 

It gives me pleasure to state, therefore, that I find a department 
well prepared for the work which it is now doing. It is in posses- 
sion of rooms in Coburn Hall admirably adapted for instruction in 
agricultural chemistry, and has in the facilities of the Department 
of Natural History, which is also located in that building, a most 
efficient adjunct to its work. The chemical department, moreover, 
is at the service of those students who receive instruction in 
the analysis of agricultural products. The professor of horticul- 
ture has at his command forcing houses, that, though not exten- 
sive, rank with the best at similar institutions, while the dairy 
building, though plain and not expensively furnished, is equipped 
to give thorough special dairy instruction to a limited number of 
students. The farm, gardens, barns and farm machinery are of 
such a kind and extent to serve well the purposes of illustration. 


But more important than all else, I find that the group of studies 
which constitutes the full Course in Agriculture will compare 
favorably in extent, variety and arrangement with similar courses 
in the best technical institutions of the country. The matter and 
manner of this course of study impart not only the sound mental 
training needed for any profession or calling but also that knowl- 
edge of the man and his environment which is especially useful to 
the agriculturist, the teacher or the scientific investigator, and 
which may be nearly as useful to the business man, or even the 
student of medicine. The knowledge of the material world which 
is necessary for those in the higher walks of agriculture is equally 
necessary and useful to other callings, notably that of the physician, 
and even the technical applications of the sciences to agricultural 
practice employ the time of the student with but few matters which 
are not important to the man who must deal with business and 
home relations. 

The idea prevails to some extent, there is reason to believe, that 
when the sciences are taught in their relation to common affairs, 
especially in their relation to Agriculture, they lose in dignity and 
in value as a means of intellectual culture. In other words, when 
chemistry, for instance, is made to deal with a manure, a plant 
or an animal as related to the problems of fertility and production, 
it is put to plebeian uses and is cast down from its high place as a 
subject worthy of consideration by the vigorous intellect of the 
ambitious young man. The prevalence of this idea is not inexpli- 
cable. Tt has its root in social prejudices. Its falseness scarcely 
needs demonstration, however. The problems of plant and animal 
nutrition have occupied the attention of the ablest scientific inves- 
tigators, as they do still, and these lines of study lose none of their 
high character or value as a means of intellectual development by 
being considered from the standpoint of utility. 

The course in agriculture, therefore, as now offered at the Maine 
State College should prove attractive, first, to all young men who 
desire to succeed in any line of work connected with agriculture, 
and, second, to all young men who wish for intellectual culture and 
propose to enter a calling which requires an intimate acquaintance 
with the natural sciences and their relations to the affairs of life. 

It is a matter for congratulation that so large a percentage of 
the graduates in the course in agriculture have been called to posi- 


tions of responsibility in connection with state colleges and experi- 
ment stations. It is but just to assert that the young men educated 
in our own institution have been well received and have met with 
a great degree of success. Every year new men are needed as 
chemists, botanists, horticulturists, entomologists, etc., and it 
certainly cannot be that Maine boys will in the future allow those 
from other states to secure all of these higher opportunities for 
attractive and useful work. Nor should they fail to prepare 
themselves for the positions of responsibility which are opening in 
our own State, created by a progressive agriculture. 

The abridged courses of study which are offered to those 
students who do not choose to take the full course, either from 
lack of time, money, ambition or courage, include a two years 
course, a one year course, and a short winter lecture course of six 
weeks. The student will be abundantly repaid for the time and 
money expended in any of these briefer courses, but should not 
content himself with doing this if he can by any reasonable exer- 
tion complete the four years course. The opinion is held by many 
young men who propose to engage in agriculture, an opinion too 
often fostered by the sentiments expressed in the farmer's home, 
and too largely held by all classes of people, that technical educa- 
tion should be strictly confined to those matters that have a direct 
business application, and that such studies as language, literature 
and social philosophy, though well enough in their way, are 
luxuries to be enjoyed only by those who have an abundance of 
time and money. No view of education, general or technical, can 
be more false. All schemes of education should contain, so far as 
is possible, a recognition of the truth that the man's mental and 
moral welfare is, after all, the supreme consideration in all social 
and business relations, and, moreover, that a man's success in 
any calling is determined, other things being equal, by his intel- 
lectual power. It only needs a retentive memory to acquire a 
categorical knowledge of a large number of business facts in a 
purely mechanical way, but to understand the relation and applica- 
tion of these facts requires a highly developed power of thought. 
Agriculture does not lie outside the operation of this* general 

Again, an important function of education is to develop the 
ability to express thought. Agriculture has suffered severely for 


lack of representatives, who through the press and on the plat- 
form, have been able to successfully contend with the representa- 
tives of opposing interests, a condition due to the superior mental 
training of men in other walks in life. For these reasons public 
sentiment is wise in sustaining the school of agriculture in its 
attempt, through a reasonable attention to rhetoric, literature and 
philosophy, to give to young men a well rounded training, adequate 
to the responsibility of becoming leaders in thought and practice. 
To do any less than this will be to abandon the hope of elevating 
agriculture to the dignity and social status to which its followers 
claim it is entitled. Therefore, while young men are assured that 
it is wise to enter the shorter courses of study, if that is the best 
they can do, they are urged to do better for themselves, when they 
can, by securing a more extended training. 

There are certainly many young men in Maine who cannot afford 
to let pass unused the opportunities which the State College offers 
in these directions, and it is my purpose, in such ways as shall 
meet with your approval, to persistently urge upon the public the 
excellent reasons why this department should receive liberal patron- 

There should be, in my opinion, a fuller expression if not recog- 
nition, of the large and increasing amount of general educational 
work which the agricultural department is doing. This is accom- 
plished in several ways : 

(1) By the intimate relation of the department with the Board 
of Agriculture. The Professor of Agriculture is an ex-officio mem- 
ber of this board and has always been active in its proceedings. 

(2) By the work which the department force are doing at the 
farmer's institutes held so frequently in the State. 

(3) By occasional popular lectures. 

(4) By the large correspondence which has grown up between 
the department force and the more intelligent and enterprising 
farmers of the State. 

(5) By courses of lectures given to local classes at various- 
points in the State, as time permits. It is my conviction that> 
apart from the instruction of students, the State College is profit- 
able to the agriculture of the State through the impetus given in 
these ways to agricultural thought and the consequent betterment 
of agricultural practice. 


I take the liberty of calling your attention to the desirability of 
including in the pre-medical and general science courses that por- 
tion of the instruction in agricultural chemistry which is biological 
in its relations. The chemistry of life and its environment is not 
second in importance to any other subject that comes within the 
range of a general science course. 

It is very desirable that the facilities for illustrating the lectures 
in agricultural chemistry should be much enlarged by the purchase 
of some apparatus and specimens of the compounds occurring in 
plants and animals, and the preparation of charts. For this pur- 
pose $200 should be appropriated. At least $100 should be 
expended in the purchase of books for the library especially relat- 
ing to agriculture and agricultural chemistry. 

The recommendations of the Professors of Animal Industry and 
of Horticulture are certainly in the line of substantial and desirable 
progress. Especial consideration should be given, I believe, to 
the establishment of a poultry department, which would not only 
serve as a means for training young men in a business that is 
becoming more and more important in Maine, but also would give 
the experiment station an opportunity to study certain problems 
connected with this important industry. 

Yours respectfully, 

Orono, Maine, November 15, 1894. 


President A. W. Harris, 

Sir : — The duties of this department comprise instruction in 
Stock Breeding, Stock Feeding, Dairy Husbandry, Poultry Indus- 
try, Farm Machinery, and Business Farming, and in addition the 
superintendence of the college farm. 

The farm and buildings, with the changes that have been made 
are well adapted to the purposes of agricultural instruction. There 
are eighty-eight acres of land in the fields, and forty acres in the 
pastures and paddocks. The crops of this year consisted of one 
hundred and thirty-five tons of hay, two hundred and sixty bushels 
of oats, seven hundred and twenty bushels of potatoes, and 
seventy tons of oat silage. Eighteen acres of land were seeded 
to grass. There still remain in the field about four acres of unim- 
proved rough land immediately surrounding the water reservoir. 
The cattle paddock has been enclosed by a half mile of closely 
woven wire fence, five feet high, which makes it secure for very 
small animals, and is not unsightly, as the old wooden fence was. 

The farm herd, including the animals of the Experiment Station,, 
consists of twenty-four cattle, representing the Jersey, Guernsey, 
and Ayrshire breeds. There are three work horses and a pair of 
young Percheron mares ; twenty-one Shropshire sheep, and seven 
breeding swine, four of which are Chesters, and three, pure cross- 
bred Berkshire-Tamworths. 

The accommodations for instruction in stock breeding are not so 
good as they should be. Part of the instruction is given in the 
lecture room, but the greater part should be given with the living 
animal before the student for judging and discussion. I hope to 
have a building twenty-five feet square, so arranged that an animal 
can be led in on a sawdust floor. The students should be arranged 
on both sides on raised seats. The building need not be an expen- 


sive one, and a large stove would make it comfortable for work in 
cold weather. 

The tool house, where the farm machinery is stored is twenty-five 
by sixty feet with two floors and is entirely inadequate for the pur- 
pose. Manufacturers of agricultural machines and implements, 
have w T ithin the ]ast two years responded to my requests and placed 
their machines here free of cost to the college. Among them are 
plows, harrows, planters, seeders, cultivators, mowing machines, 
potato planter, potato digger, hay tedder, hay loader, hay unloader, 
and horse power. These machines are all used in the practical 
w 7 ork of the farm, and the students come directly in contract with 
them, operating them in the field and familiarizing themselves with 
the machines, and their practical values as economizers of labor. 
There are several new machines, that have recently come out, that 
we need, in order to keep pace with the advance of agricultural 
thought and practice, which can be secured free of cost. We need 
this machinery, and we ought to provide a suitable place in which 
to exhibit it. The short course students are here only in the winter 
months, and unless we have floor room, sufficient to set each 
machine up and show it, they can get but little value from its 

I think a building twenty-five feet by fifty feet, with two floors, 
costing seven hundred dollars will answer present purposes. 

Instruction in Poultry Industry has consisted wholly of lectures. 
We have no plant, aside from two small pens with a dozen pure 
bred birds in each. The importance of the poultry industry of the 
State and its possibilities ; its adaptation to the farm as a side 
interest ; and its importance as a special line of work for men of 
of limited means who desire to engage in a business of their own, 
together with the numerous inquiries received here, relative to 
the business, seem to require that we be equipped with such 
buildings and appliances as will enable us to give instruction and 
training. The buildings should be erected in a plain substantial 
manner, so as to secure the best accommodations at the least possi- 
ble outlay. They should be just such buildings as a practical poul- 
try man should build for himself. This plant should be on a scale 
sufficiently extensive to give employment to one man throughout 
the year in order to yield such financial results as would be satis- 


A breeding house fifteen feet wide and two hundred feet long 

will accommodate two hundred and fifty laying hens. A brooder 

house fifteen feet wide by one hundred feet long, heated by hot 

water, would give room for fifteen hundred chickens. These two 

buildings complete will cost about fifteen hundred dollars. I regard 

the establishment of this plant as the most essential need of the 


Respectfully submitted, 


Professor of Animal Industry. 


Second President of the Maine State College. 


President A. W. Harris, 

Sir : — The four years since the department of horticulture was 
organized have been marked by steady and rapid growth along the 
lines indicated at the outset, and it may be well at this time to 
consider the actual cost to the college of the maintenance of this 
department. Naturally during the first few years the expense of 
equipment is large. The fact, however, that this expense is partly 
borne by the experiment station reduces the outla}^ of college funds 
very materially. 

Previous to July 1, 1892, there had been appropriated from col- 
lege funds for the general expenses of the department — including 
equipment, labor, fuel, fertilizers, glass, etc. — $1,750; and for the 
erection of an office building and alterations in the forcing house 
$935. Since July 1892 there have been appropriated for the 
department but $500, making the total amount $3,185. In addi- 
tion to this sum there have been received for produce sold, for 
labor in other departments, and frorn all other sources $620. The 
expenditures during the period covered amount in round numbers 
to $3,855, causing a deficit of $50, for the whole time. The aver- 
age current expenses of the department since July 1, 1892 have 
been approximately $500 per year. 

The extent to which general gardening may be profitably carried 
on is very limited owing to the meagre facilities for marketing ; 
and as the fruit plantations are under control of the experiment 
station, the income from the sale of produce is small. As how- 
ever, the primary object of a college garden should be educational 
rather than financial, the operations of the experiment station may 
be utilized to a considerable extent for illustrative purposes. 


During the past year the capacity of the forcing houses has been 
doubled and the facilities for illustration in the culture of plants 
under glass are much more satisfactory than heretofore. With the 
increased space, however, the reduction in the amount of labor 
available for carrying on the work is severely felt. We have, 
therefore confined our work in floriculture to the use of a few of 
the more common plants which will not be ruined by the unavoid- 
able neglect. I trust that in the near future provision may be 
made for building up this branch of the department. 

Since my last report the work of instruction has been entirety 
with special students, and has been varied to meet individual 
needs. Such a course is very unsatisfactory to an instructor, but 
the results are on the whole encouraging. The number of students 
has not been as large as might have been wished for, but there has 
been an earnestness and faithfulness on the part of those in attend- 
ance which is very gratifying. 

The work of renovating the campus has been under my immedi- 
ate direction, and the money provided by the legislature at its last 
session has made possible some extensive improvements. The 
main front drive has been made wider and its course so changed as 
to make Wingate Hall more readily accessible. The terrace in 
front of Oak Hall has been obliterated, a walk has been built to 
the front of the building and the course of the drives has been so 
altered as to do away with the unpleasant stiffness of straight lines 
and right angles in the vicinity of this building and the boarding 

The sixteen foot drive leading from the boarding house past the 
experiment station building has been extended, passing the farm 
buildings, to the highway at a point several rods below the old 
"farm road/' This drive is now used by visitors quite as much as 
the one formerly considered the "main drive." 

The terrace in front of the house formerly occupied by the Pro- 
fessor of Agriculture has been obliterated and the area between 
this building and the green house has been seeded, — a change 
which provides a very attractive stretch of lawn. 

The small building used as a gymnasium has been moved to a 
less conspicuous position and the area east of Wingate Hall has 
been seeded. 

The work done on the campus has been in accordance with a 
definite plan arranged before the work was commenced. Some 


important operations have been undertaken and left incomplete, and 
it is very much to be desired that we should be able to continue 
the work next season. The most expensive operations have been 
completed, but to make improvements which seem absolutely nec- 
essary will require at least $2,000. 

In my last report I urged the necessity of a suitable building for 
stable, storage rooms, tool-house, root cellar, and other uses of the 
department. Additional experience of two years but emphasizes 
our need in this direction. Not only is there an inconvenience 
attached to the necessity of having implements scattered in several 
different places ; but there is a waste of time, a loss of material, 
and often irreparable damage to experimental work. I cannot too 
strongly urge the importance of this matter and ask for funds nec- 
essary to construct a building. 

Several changes and improvements should be made in the 
arrangement and furnishing of the green house and office building. 
Among the more important of these, are, a cement floor in the 
house used for experimental work in plant nutrition ; some altera- 
tions in the heating apparatus ; the completion of the potting room 9 
and an office for my assistant. 

A portion of the orchard is much in need of a system of tile 
drains, and the land set aside for a small fruit plantation is unfit 
for this purpose till thoroughly underdrained. 

Several implements are very much needed for properly conduct- 
ing the work in the gardens and on the lawns. Some apparatus 
is also needed for class-room instruction. I would call your atten- 
tion specially, to our need of a spring wagon for use in handling 
fruit and vegetables ; a mowing machine suitable for working 
among trees ; a smoothing harrow for lawn and garden work ; 
automatic ventilators for two of the green houses and some micro- 
scopes for the use of students. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Professor oj Horticulture. 


President A. W. Harris: 

Sir : — Since the submission of the last report from this depart- 
ment the money appropriated for the engineering laboratory has 
been expended. With it, there were purchased a testing machine of 
60,000 pounds capacity to be used in finding the tensile and com- 
pressive strength of iron, a cement tester of 2,000 pounds capacity. 
These instruments furnish a good nucleus, about which we hope to 
collect a full equipment for the laboratory. The tendency of 
recent developments iu engineering education makes a well fur- 
nished laboratory indispensable in a course in engineering. 

To satisfy the immediate needs of this department, we should 
have an extensometer for use with the testing machine. This is 
an instrument for measuring the change in shape of the test piece, 
as the stress is applied, and is very essential to the study of the 
effect of stress on pieces of different shape and material. Such a 
piece of apparatus as we desire will cost $125. 

The absence of suitable equipment for the study of hydraulics 
has long been a source of regret, and represents a want that must 
be satisfied at an early date, if we are to keep our course on a par 
with the Civil Engineering courses of other institutions of this 
class. We ask an appropriation of $200 with which to construct 
in the laboratory a tank of boiler iron, 3 feet in diameter and 7 or 
8 feet high, arranged so that the water in it would be either under 
the full pressure of the standpipe, or simply under atmospheric pres- 
sure. Together with the necessary accessories, this would cost 
considerably more than $200 if bought outright, but much of it 
can be constructed in the college shops at a less expense. 

Another addition to our equipment, which we need very much, 
and which we could build ourselves, is an apparatus for measur- 


ing the strength and observing the action of small wooden beams 
under transverse loads. The cost of such an appliance is esti- 
mated at $200. 

The prominenceTgiven to the question of improved country roads 
throughout the whole country cannot be disregarded. Appearances 
seem to indicate that the day of radical improvements in highway 
construction is at hand. Several states have already revised the 
road laws w T ith a view to more systematic methods of construction 
and maintenance ; and there is already an increasing demand for 
men who have made a thorough study of the underlying principles and 
the standard types of road construction. We have given attention 
to this subject for several years. Not only have the students in 
Civil Engineering received instruction, but also those taking the 
short course in agriculture. The men who are going back to the 
farms may have charge of the roads, and under their direction 
scientific principles may be applied to actual construction and 
maintenance, until a change is made in the road laws in this state. 
The American Road Machine Company of Pennsylvania has loaned 
us a stone crusher which we have used for purposes of illustration 
for two or three years. The purchase of this machine is desired. 
It is listed at $600.00, but will be sold to the College for $420.00. 

Our equipment of surveying instruments must be increased. 
With the small classes of previous years, our present supply was 
sufficient, but, with the increased number of students, additions to 
the outfit are imperative. The instruments we have on hand are in 
good shape and in constant use, and many of them with proper 
care will be serviceable for years to come. Our best railroad tran- 
sit has already been in use twenty-two years and is a good instru- 
ment, today. A careful estimate based upon experience 
and the size of the classes already in college shows that 
we should have at least the following instruments in order to do 
creditable work. The prices affixed are^net, having been obtained, 
as special rates, from prominent instrument makers. 

1 wye level $126 00 

2 transits at $162.00 324 00 

1 dumpy level 90 00 

2 leveling rods at $15.20 30 40 

6 ranging poles at $2.25 13 50 

4 steel tapes (box) at $10.80 43 20 

4 steel tapes (reel) at $5.85 23 40 


6 sets marking pius at $1 .80 t $10 80 

6 plumb bobs at $1.50 9 00 

$670 30 
We believe that this course has demonstrated its success by the 
success of its graduates. By reference to the list of alumni, it 
will be found that a large proportion of the men who have gradu- 
ated from this department occupy responsible and lucrative posi- 
tions. In order that the previous high standing may be main- 
tained, it is essential that an adequate equipment be supplied. 
Our designing room in Wingate Hall has never been fully 
equipped. It is absolutely necessary that some way be provided 
for riling away, in proper shape, the large number of drawings 
which are made here. A suitable case is estimated to cost $100. 
As the repairs of the buildings have been placed in my charge, I 
wish to say that the rapid increase in our numbers rendered neces- 
sary a large amount of work during the past two years for which 
no appropriation has been made, and that, in consequence of this, 
the repairs account has been largely overdrawn, and about $3,000 
of the accumulated interest which has heretofore been held for 
investment has been drawn upon to pay these bills.. 

A part of these repairs and constructions is still productive 
investment as the janitor and the occupant of the farm house pay 
rent, and the students pay ten per cent on the cost of the repairs 
to the dining room, kitchen, and the bath rooms in the club houses. 
The amount of money thus productively invested is $2,585 as will 
be seen from the figures given below. The work referred to is as 
follows : 
Construction of dining room and kitchen in Q. T. V. 

Club House $250 00 

" bath room in Q. T. V. Club House . . 325 00 

" bath room in Beta Theta Pi House 136 00 

" closet and bringing in water to Beta 

Theta Pi House 125 00 

" janitor's house and barn 1,000 00 

" farm foreman's house 800 00 

$2,585 00 
The gross income from this is $198.50. 

In addition to the above, there has been expended in the con- 
struction of the President's house over and above the amount 


received from the insurance on the old house, something over 
$1,000 ; for four bath rooms in Oak Hall, $200 ; for a new furnace 
in the house occupied by Prof. Aubert, $100 ; for necessary repairs 
in the cellar of the chemical laboratory, $50, making a total of 

Many repairs are needed every year on so extensive a plant as 
is now possessed by the college ; and as during the last two years, 
nothing but imperatively necessary repairs have been made, it will 
be necessary to make the following repairs during the next two 
years in order to keep the buildings from deteriorating. The foun- 
dation of Oak Hall must have immediate attention or the building 
will be ruined. To put it in proper condition will require at least 
$1,200. The roof and gutters of this building also need repairs 
to the extent of $100.00. 

The water closets, which were designed for temporary use, 
should be replaced with more modern arrangements. To do this 
will cost $250.00. Repairs upon the plant for furnishing and dis- 
tributing drinking water to the various buildings are needed to the 
extent of $100.00. 

The Q. T. V. club house should be painted and some repairs 
made on the cellar wall ; for this work will be needed $200.00. 
The house occupied by the Beta Theta Pi Fraternity will need 
painting next year at a cost of $100.00 ; the cellar walls need 
cementing on the outside and the floor timbers must be renewed 
over part of the floor; this work will cost $175.00. A new furnace 
is needed also in this house which will cost $150.00. 

The cellar in the chemical laboratory should be cemented as it is 
very damp and unwholesome as it is. The drain will also have to 
be built over. The repairs on this cellar and drain will cost 
$150.00. The work tables in the main laboratory together with 
the whole system of drain pipes need a thorough overhauling and 
reconstruction ; this will cost at least $100.00. The workshop 
needs painting at once, together with some minor repairs which 
will cost $200.00. The janitor's house and the house rented by 
instructor Colby need to be painted, this will cost $150.00. The 
cellar of the Boarding House needs quite extensive repairs includ- 
ing the cementing of the floor, which will cost $100.00. 


For repairs which cannot be calculated upon at this time but 
which are sure to be needed during the next two years there should 
be appropriated a sum not less than $600.00. 

The above estimated repairs sum up to $3,375.00. 

Professor of Civil Engineering. 


President A. W. Harris : 

Few changes have taken place in this department during the past 
years. The routine work has been about the same except that a 
reduction in time has caused a general rearrangement of studies. 
The management of the shop has remained the same and the 
instruction the same except in the carpenter shop. Increase in num- 
ber of students rendered it necessary to get some one to teach this 
branch and Mr. A. J. Durgin of Orono was employed. He has 
instructed this class for two years in a highly satisfactory manner. 
Two engine lathes and a planer have been added to the equipment. 
Seven sets of tools have been purchased for the carpenter shop and 
additional bench room provided. The shop has reached its limit in 
the way of development without making additions and the time is 
near when it will be necessary to make additions or else restrict the 
number of students attending. 

I wish to acknowledge the receipt of framed photographs from 
Mr. E. R. Merrill of Columbus, Ohio, illustrating the class of 
machinery built by the Jeffrey Manufacturing Company. Gifts of 
this kind are highly appreciated. Many alumni have generously 
remembered the college, and it is hoped that these favors will be 
continued in the future. 

Among the pressing needs of the department is a new boiler and 
engine. The one now in use has served its time and was out of 
date years ago. This is especially true of the boiler which 
requires constant repairing. Another reason why a new plant 
should be provided is that the present one is too small, and still 
another, no less important is, that a more modern plant is a neces- 
sity for purposes of instruction. A 50-horse power engine and 
boiler, together costing about $1,250, would supply the present 


want. In the machine shop there is room for one more lathe which 
is very much needed ; cost about $325. A pipe threading machine 
is one of the needs of the college in all departments; cost $360. 
To give proper instruction in engine testing a new indicator with 
reducing motion is needed to indicate engines of high speed ; cost 
$120. In this same connection a Prony brake costing $50 which 
could be made here is needed. In the drawing room a case for 
drawings costing $50 is needed to store drawings. 

It may not be out of place to note here that a new shop must be 
built soon or it will be necessary to turn away students for want of 
room. The present building is entirely too small and unsightly, to 
say nothing of the fact that a wooden building is unsuitable. 

I wish to urge again, for the sake of economy, the construction 
of a central heating plant from which all the buildings can be 
heated and in which all the coal can be stored. Such a plant could 
be managed with a much less force than is required to run the 
eight separate plants we now have. 



President A. W. Harris: 

Sir : — I have the honor to submit the following report of the 
Military Department for the year 1894. 

These were submitted at the beginning of the year by the class 
of 1894 on the following military subjects : "The Military Forces 
of the United States ;" "Military Work in Colleges ;" "Torpedoes ;" 
"Defense of Villages;" "Hasty Entrenchments;" "The National 
Guard ;" "The Balance of Military Power in Europe ;" "The New 
Magazine Rifle;" "Manufacture of the Fifteen-iDch Gun;" "Man- 
ufacture of the Eight-inch Converted Rifle;" "Manufacture of 
Small Arms;" "Smokeless Powder;" "Sherman's Campaign to 
Atlanta;" "Sherman's Campaign from Atlanta to the Sea;" "The 
Relation of Military Law to the Constitution;" "The General 
Court Martial." Some of these articles were accepted by the Pro- 
fessor of English for required work in his department. The most 
important were read by the writers to the class. The articles 
entitled "The National Guard," "The Balance of Military Power 
in Europe" and "The New Magazine Rifle" were circulated among 
the National Guard officers of this State. "CalirT's Notes on Mili- 
tary Science" were taken up by the seniors and completed, supple- 
mented by half hour lectures, usually on the subjects treated in the 
text for the day. Use was made of the lectures of Captain Pettit, 
United States Army, Professor of Military Science and Tactics at 
Yale University. The juniors did the usual work in drill regula- 

On account of bad weather, target practice for the season 
of 1893, was not completed until April of 1894. The gold 
medal awarded each year to the company making the highest 
average in target practice, was won in 1893, by Company "A," 


cadet Captain Murray commanding. Marksman's buttons were 
awarded, under the same conditions prescribed for known dis- 
tances in the army, to : — Senior Class ; — Cadet First Lieuten- 
ant and Quartermaster, G-. H. Hall, Cadet First Lieutenant 
A. D.^Hayes, Cadet G. W. Rumball, Cadet C. E. Gilbert. Jun- 
ior Class ; — Cadet Sergeant Major E. C. Merrill, Cadet First Ser- 
geant Albion Moulton, Cadet Sergeant O. L. Grover, Cadet A. H. 
Buck, Cadet M. E. Ellis. Sophomore Class ; — Cadet G. B. Wil- 
kins. Freshman Class ; — Cadet H. E. Stevens. Special ; — Cadet 
D. T. Achorn. 

A band of nineteen pieces was organized in March under the 
leadership of Cadet First Lieutenant E. H. Cowan, of the senior 
class, and by the last of May played for parades and ceremonials 
very creditably. Cadet First Lieutenant A. H. Buck is leader this 
year. During the encampment, and for two weeks preceding, 
Mr. C. R. Eaton of Winterport, for five years a member of the 
6th. U. S. Infantry band, was employed as instructor. Mr. Eaton 
established the time to correspond with the regular cadence of 120 
to the minute, and gave the band a precision that was before 

By the last of May, the battalion was in the best condition it 
has been in since I took charge. This was recognized by the 
Inspector General, Colonel R. P. Hughes, U. S. A. He made his 
annual inspection May 27. The seniors were required to work out 
problems in minor tactics by use of the battalion in the field, and 
problems in grand tactics by writing out orders to correspond with 
dispositions noted on a military map submitted to them. Their 
work received the Inspector's commendation in both cases. 

At Commencement the following named graduates of the class 
of 1894, "having faithfully pursued and satisfactorily completed 
the course in Military Science and Tactics" were awarded special 
military certificates, and reported to the Adjutant General of 
Maine : Cadet Major Edward B. Wood, Cadet First Lieutenant 
Augustus D. Hayes, Cadet Captain Herbert Murray, Cadet Cap- 
tain James M. Kimball, Cadet First Lieutenant and Quartermaster 
George H. Hall, Cadet Second Lieutenant Wallace H. Jose, Cadet 
First Lieutenant and Adjutant Frank G. Gould, Cadet First Lieu- 
tenant Edward H. Cowan, Cadet Second Lieutenant Frank C* 
Bowler, Cadet Second Lieutenant Leon O. Norwood, Cadet George 
W. Rumball and Cadet Leroy T. Durham. 


Cadet Major E. B. Wood, Cadet First Lieutenant A. D. Hayes, 
and Cadet Captain Herbert Murray, the three seniors having the 
highest rank in the department, were reported to the Adjutant 
General of the U. S. Army, and their names will appear in the 
next Annual Army Register. 

The fall term opened with the largest number of students in the 
history of the department. There were 84 new cadets necessitat- 
ing a third company. After five weeks preliminary drill they were 
put into the battalion. 

The annual encampment was held in Portland on the Eastern 
Promenade, by invitation of the city government. The camp was 
well located, convenient to wood and water, with good drainage, 
and lighted by electric lights. A committee appointed by the 
Board of Aldermen saw that we wanted nothing. The military 
features — drills, practice, marches, extended order work, parades, 
ceremonies, and guard duty — presented little that was new. A 
compan}' of the Portland High School Cadets joined us in one 
Ibattalion drill. A practice march was made to Fort Preble where 
the cadets went through the barracks, and witnessed a battery 
drill. A sham battle, in the Oaks beyond the Deering base ball 
grounds was finished in the early evening twilight. The flash of 
fire which was very preceptible made this display of extended 
order work particularly impressive. Our parades were witnessed 
by thousands. The interest displayed by the citizens of Portland 
in the cadets increased the interest of the cadets in their military 

Immediately after return from camp, target practice began and 
is now continuing. 

In theoretical work, the juniors are taking up the "Manual of 
Guard Duty" and the seniors "Mercur's Elements of the Art of 
War," which has been substituted for "Califfs' Notes." 

The band is using hired instruments but as the band is an assured 
success, a set of instruments should be purchased. The following 
instruments are needed : 1 snare drum, $9 ; 1 Eb cornet and out- 
fit, $30 ; 1 Eb cornet and outfit, $20 ; 1 Bb cornet and outfit, $30 ; 
3 Bb cornets and outfits at $20, $60 ; 3 Eb alto horns at $25, $75 ; 
2 tenor horns at $25, $50 ; a baritone horn, $30 ; an Eb bass horn, 
$40 ; an Eb clarionet, $25 ; 2 Bb clarionets at $25, $50 ; an Eb 
piccolo, $10; total, $429. 


It is necessary that an officer know bow to ride. The art can 
only be acquired properly in youth. Some provisions should be 
made to give instruction in horsemanship. The cadet Major and 
his Adjutant should be mounted at battalion drills. A beginning 
could be made with the two horses needed to properly carry on our 
infantry drills. Two serviceable and sound saddle horses can be 
bought for $50 each. They can be kept for $50 a year. Cavalry 
equipments can be bought for $25 a set. It is requested that this 
$350 be included as an essential need in the estimates for the mili- 
tary department. This includes two horses, equipments, and keep 
for two years. 

Military education includes physical training. The drawing* 
room used during the past two years for this purpose is no longer 
available, nor would it be large enough for the present freshman 
class even if it were available. The students' physical needs must 
be met or the college will suffer seriously. The building of an 
armory and gymnasium cannot longer be delayed. Architects' 
plans and specifications, and four sets of competitive drawings, are 
submitted herewith. 

A handsome, commodious, and suitable building can be built for 
$35,000. The state was never in better condition financially to 
appropriate for it, nor the friends of the college more numerous or 
more united in striving for it. 

The Professor of Military Science should have quarters on the- 
campus. It is more than probable that he cannot find suitable 
quarters for rent in Orono. He is not situated like other members 
of the faculty with reference to establishing a home. More than 
any other member of the faculty he is responsible for the discipline 
of the students and for this reason should be on the campus- 
While this house is not as pressing a need as the armory it is 
worthy of careful consideration. Three thousand dollars would 
build a house that would correspond with the quarters furnished 
lieutenants at army posts. 

One hundred dollars a year are needed to keep the range and its* 
equipments in proper order. This amount should be appropriated 
by the state and not paid from the pockets of the cadets as in the 

MAINE static COLLEGE. 77 

Resume of estimates : 

Armory and equipments $35,000 00 

Equipment for band 429 00 

Equipment for instruction in horsemanship .... 350 00 

House for Professor of Military Science 3,000 00 

Care of range for target practice 200 00 

$38,979 00 
Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 


2nd Lieutenant 9th Infantry. 
Professor of Military Science and Tactics. 


President A. W, Harris : 

Sir: — The library contains 8,370 volumes, and about 2,000 
pamphlets. The books may be divided as follows : * agriculture, 
989; ^astronomy, 161; biography, 166; general biology, 22; 
botany, 87 ; chemical technology, 35 ; chemistry, 112 ; ^education, 
248; engineering, 309; *ethnology, 21; fine arts, 51; general 
works, 65 ; geography and travel, 149 ; *geology, 193 ; ^history, 
318; ^horticulture, 362; law, 224; general literature, 48, Ameri- 
can literature, 169, English literature, 270, French literature, 24, 
German literature, 30, Greek literature, 13, Italian literature, 6, 
Latin literature, 11, Spanish literature, 5 ; mathematics, 58 ; *medi- 
.cine, 67; ^meteorology, 58; *military science, 72 ; mineralogy, 9 ; 
palaeontology, 21; ^patents, 184; general periodicals, 317; phil- 
ology, 130; philosophy, 50; physics, 167; *political economy, 
88; public documents, 1731; religion, 111; general science, 152; 
general useful arts, 222; *veterinary science, 26; zoology, 138. 
The subjects marked with the asterisk contain many U. S. and 
State publications in addition to those classed as public documents. 

The working capacity of the library is not much more than half 
what is represented by the number of the volumes, as the public 
documents are seldom consulted, and almost exactly one-half of 
the technical works were published before 1880, and hence are of 
no great value except historically. 

The new course in Library Economy is successful so far. Five 
young women are taking the course ; and already several inquiries 
have been received from those who are thinking of coming next 
year. A class of six is as large as can be taught, if each is to 
receive the necessary personal attention, while the staff consists of 
one person. It is hoped that our effort to prepare carefully trained 


assistants will meet with the support it deserves from libraries in 
want of additions to their force. With the exception of a course 
in literature, the instruction in this course is entirely technical, and 
most of the time is devoted to practical work. 

With the beginning of the fall term of 1894, the sale of text 
books to the students was put in charge of the librarian. The new 
arrangement seems satisfactory. The books are sold at a material 
reduction from retail prices. In one case — that of the most 
expensive book used during the fall term — a book retailing for 
$7.50, is sold to the students for $6.25. I have been able to learn 
very little about the prices of books in previous years, bnt I judge 
there is a saving to the students of about 12 1-2 per cent from 
former prices. 

Large additions to the library are urgently needed. The library 
is the laboratory for work in history, political economy, literature, 
sociology, philosophy, etc., but it is not nearly so well equipped as 
the laboratories of other departments. In many branches of study, 
the comparative method is the only successful one, but when the 
library furnishes only one — often, alas, not any — book upon a 
special subject, what becomes of the comparative method? 

Much as technical books are needed, there is even greater need 
of books to be read not studied. The library is very deficient in 
literature, history, travel, biography and fine arts. 

Books on European literature are especially needed for the use of 
the students in library economy. It is very desirable that those 
contemplating library work should have some knowledge of the 
literature of continental Europe, and to give this, a course in 
modern European literature, following a course in English and 
American literature, is a required part of the work in the spring 
term. Much reading should be done in connection with this course, 
but where are the books? Articles in the encyclopaedias, and a few 
in the magazines are nearly all that can be found about the authors. 
Dante's Divine Comedy and Cervantes' Don Quixote are our only 
translations of foreign masterpieces. There are a few French and 
German works, but most of the students in the library course do 
not read any language but English fluently. 

It is desirable to increase the list of general periodicals taken by 
the library. In addition to those we now have there should be, at 
least, The Arena, The Art Journal, The Critic, The Contemporary 


Review, Current History, Current Literature, The Fortnightly- 
Review, Littell's Living Age, Music, The Outlook and the Quar- 
terly Review. 

Respectfully submitted, 




Your committee have labored under several disadvantages. Their 
time was limited. While every attention was shown by the vari- 
ous professors, and pains taken to explain the workings of the 
several departments, still there was a loss in not seeing the College 
in its actual work. Could your committee have gone into the 
class rooms, listened to lectures and recitations, and observed the 
processes of work in the various departments, it would have been 
a great advantage. A further embarrassment was occasioned by 
the fact that several members of the committee were not able to 
be present. 

All interested in the welfare of the institution are to be congrat- 
ulated upon its material equipment and facilities for work. Its 
site is well chosen and ample, the location healthful, the campus 
one of the finest to be found, the buildings a matter of pride. The 
people of the State should be impressed with the value of their pos- 
session in connection with this College. 

Then again, the College is to be congratulated upon its faculty. 
Few institutions of its grade we venture to say, are better fitted 
for work in this respect. The various professors and assistants 
are enthusiasts in their several departments. Progressive and 
abreast of the times, they are impressing themselves favorably in 
these and other respects upon the students. 

The prevailing financial depression has lessened the number of 
expected students during the past year. Still, it has been larger 
than in any previous year, and there is promise of a large incom- 
ing class for next year. The committee were impressed with the 
manliness, enthusiasm, and loyalty of the students, and with the 
good work accomplished by them. 

A critical point in the history of the College has just been happily 
passed. It is a delicate and difficult matter to choose the successor 


of a successful man in the administration of a college. By general 
consent, after a year's opportunity for observation of work, results, 
and plans for the future, this has been done in the choice of Dr. 
Fern aid's successor. It must be a satisfaction to all concerned to 
note the widely growing impression that President Harris is the 
providential man to direct in bringing the Maine State College to a 
still larger recognition, usefulness and success. 

In speaking of the several departments, our observations will be 
necessarily brief and somewhat general. We are not specialists. 

The department of civil engineering had much interest for the 
committee. Under such able supervision, only the best results 
could be expected. The various drawings and designs exhibited 
showed great care and commendable proficiency. 

The equipment and work of the department of mechanical 
engineering were looked over very carefully, and your committee 
regard this department as well worthy the patronage of all who 
desire instruction in these lines of work. 

Some were especially excellent, and showed at a glance the nec- 
essary aptitude for this profession. Others convinced the com- 
mittee that no amount of labor will suffice to make some students 
successful civil engineers. It would be well for such at the sug- 
gestion of the professor to change to some other course. 

The department of Physics presents a great variety of work 
both in theory and practice. With instruction in the form of lec- 
tures to quite an extent independent of text books and with excel- 
lent facilities for practical work the best results are secured in this 
department. It sustains a very close relation to nearly all the 

The same may be said of the department of Chemistry. This 
is well fitted for laboratory work, but needs further equipment in 
the shape of a reference chemical library. 

Excellent work is reported in the department of Mathematics 
and Astronomy. It is admirably equipped so far as the matter of 
instruction is concerned, but a fair-sized telescope and an observa- 
tory in which to use it would greatly improve the facilities for 
astronomical work. 

The study of Rhetoric and Modern Languages is under the direc- 
tion of Prof. Estabrooke. This covers a wide range of most thor 
ough work. The opportunity for composition and essay work is 


excellent. Though hardly coming under the classification by which 
this department is known, a limited study of Greek is included in the 
list. The scientific terms, derived from the Greek make some 
knowledge of the language very desirable for the scientific student. 
The suggestion occurs to the committee whether the study of Latin, 
sustaining as it does so important a relation to the English might 
not be introduced with advantage. Tt would doubtless prove an 
attraction to those students, who for purposes of teaching, or for 
other lines of work wish to include it in their college course. Nor 
does it seem aside from the purpose for which the institution was 

Instruction in Logic, English Literature and Civics falls to Prof. 
Rogers. Originality and thoroughness characterize his work. In 
Civics there is considerable independence of text books. The 
instruction is given in the form of lectures, and the students are 
expected to do more or less general reading, finding topics for dis- 
cussion and facts to illustrate principles in the current newspapers 
and magazines. 

In the department of Natural History splendid work is being 
done, and a great deal of it. The professor is an enthusiast. A 
single feature of the work accomplished may be noticed. Her- 
bariums of considerable extent have been collected, classified, and 
labeled, to be sent to several High schools and Academies in the 
State. Th^se will prove of great value to these institutions. 

The Military department under Lieut. Hersey is in splendid con- 
dition. The Inspector General at his last visit paid it the high 
compliment of being one of the best under his inspection. 

A Fire Drill has been instituted in connection with this depart- 
ment which shows excellent results and may be of great value to 
the institution itself in case of fire. 

Lieut. Hersey also has charge of the Physical Culture of the stu- 
dents. On entering the College, the students have measurements 
of the different parts of the body taken, and these are repeated at 
regular intervals, showing the exact results of the exercise per- 
formed. The great value of this culture for twenty-one students 
whose measurements were taken is seen in a tabulated statement 
showing the average and maximum gains in the development of the 
various parts of the body during eight months. 


In addition to suggestions already made, the committee note the 
urgent need of a suitable building for gymnasium and drill pur- 

The Library is far too small to meet the real needs of the Col- 
lege. There should be a liberal appropriation for its enlargement. 
The equipment and plans for instruction in the Agricultural depart- 
ments reveal a well systemized arrangement for instruction along 
all lines of work. 

The full course in Agriculture appears to comprise a study of 
all those sciences relating to the phenomena of nature, which will 
give the student the most perfect and complete knowledge. 

The short courses in Agriculture your committee believe to be of 
great value, as an aid to those who cannot attend the College for a 
full course, as well as a possible stepping stone to other and more 
extended courses. 

Your committee would recommend that the faculty take such 
means as may seem to them advisable, to distribute information 
over the State relating to these courses, thereby placing their 
advantages fully before our people. It must be remembered that 
it has been comparatively few years that special education has 
been deemed necessary for the farmer. And for this reason, 
earnest efforts are needed to place its advantages before those who 
should be the most interested. 

At the same time, it carries with it a most perfect college train- 
ing, which will help those who follow it, to do good work in life 
along any line. 

The training school in general agriculture, and the dairy school, 
are very fully equipped and are well worthy the attention of all 
young men who are actively engaged in farm work. Coming, as 
they do, at a season of the year, when there should be comparative 
leisure for the young, in our farm homes, the} 7 offer grand advan- 
tages for a special training in the most essential principles of agri- 
cultural practice. 

The arrangement for reducing to a minimum, the student's 
expenses in these short courses, we regard as especially wise. We 
believe it would be well to issue explanatory circulars for distribu- 
tion throughout the State to the press and to officers of agricultural 
societies aud granges. The officers of the State grange should be 
interested in this work, as the grange membership is made up 


largely of young people of our farms, who would be particularly 
benefitted by these courses, and we recommend that, if found to 
be practicable, some representative of the college be present at 
the next meeting of the State grange for the purpose of formula- 
ting a plan to be recommended to subordinate granges for the found- 
ing of grange scholarships for these short courses. 

The department of Horticulture is worthy of special notice. 
The work in the green house, proper, as well as in the forcing 
house, recently erected, for experimental purposes, and for lessons 
in plant nutrition, convey lessons which should be forced home to 
all w T ho are engaged in these lines of work. 

In the Experiment Station, with a director whose name and work 
are familiar throughout the State, aided by trained specialists 
using the latest appliances for exact work, the most thorough 
investigations and the most delicate experiments are carried for- 
ward on the several related lines of agriculture, horticulture, animal 
and plant life, growth, nutrition, etc. The results are published 
in the form of bulletins and an annual report, and distributed 
throughout the State. There are about nine thousand names on 
the list representing the recipients of these documents. The com- 
mittee were impressed at the outset with the important relation 
which the College sustains to the various interests of the State and 
especially its agricultural interests. It aims to increase not only 
the material prosperity of the State but also of every farmer who 
cares to avail himself of the advantages it offers him. 

The proposed new courses in Electrical Engineering, Medicine, 
and Pharmacy seemed to the committee an excellent idea and one 
which might be carried out with comparatively small additional 
expense in connection with the appropriate departments of Phy- 
sics, Natural History and Chemistry. 

Your committee suggest that if practicable, the College make 
exhibits~of its work in as many departments as possible, at the 
agricultural fairs : — State, county and local — and that a represen- 
tative of the College be present to explain the exhibits. 

In closing, the committee would respectfully suggest the impor- 
tance of maintaining the institution as a college in the strictest and 


largest sense of the term, ever advancing the requirements for 
admission as necessary, ever broadening and never narrowing its 

Respectfully submitted, 


B. WALKER McKEEN, [ Committee. 



Course in Electrical Engineering, Open September 4, 1894. 

During the last few years the business of the professional elec- 
trician has become one of great financial and practical importance. 
There is a constant demand for men who have had the proper train- 
ing in this direction, and there is no reason why this demand should 
not continue for many years. 

Recognizing these facts and considering that no course in elec- 
trical engineering is offered in the State of Maine, the Trustees of 
the College have decided to open such a course September 4, 1894. 
The work will, for the present, be under the supervision of the 
Professors of Physics and Mechanical Engineering, and a compe- 
tent practical electrician will be employed as instructor. 

The regular course will consist of four years, during which time 
twenty hours per week will be required of each student. In the 
Freshman and Sophomore years the work will be identical with 
that of the Civil and Mechanical Engineers. In the Junior year 
students will take the following subjects in Electricity : 

Practical Electricity, 

Theoretical Electricity, 

Laboratory Measurements and Testing. 

In the Senior year : 

Practical Electricity, 

Laboratory Work, 

Construction of Electrical Apparatus, 

Thesis Work. 


Included under ' 'Practical Electricity" are such subjects as 
Electric Lighting, Electric Railway, the Telegraph, the Telephone, 
the Theory of Dynamo Construction, Economy of an Electric 
Plant, Cables, Electro -plating. 

In "Theoretical Electricity" attention is given to the theory of 
potential and the mathematical equations which underlie the labora- 
tory work. 

In the "Electrical Laboratory" the student familiarizes himself 
with the standard instruments of measurement, such as the Wheat- 
stone bridge, slide- wire bridge, reflecting galvanometers, magneto- 
meters, voltameters and the like. Measurements of the electrical 
units are made, and then he passes on to work with the dynamos. 
Motors and other pieces of electrical apparatus are actually con- 
structed and problems covering the whole field of Electrical Engi- 
neering are worked out. 

The time not occupied with electrical work will be devoted to 
instruction given in the course in Mechanical Engineering and sub- 
jects of a general nature. For these see catalogue. The student 
will thus get a fair amount of practice in free hand and mechani- 
cal drawing, carpentry, forge work, the steam engine and other 
branches useful to the Electrical Engineer. 


The requirements for admission are the same as those for the 
other courses, for which see catalogue. 

Total annual expenses need not exceed $175 per year. Rooms 
and tuition are free. 

Special Courses. 

It is highly desirable that the student should devote four years 
to the pursuit of this subject, but it may happen that in some 
cases this will not be possible. For such, shorter courses of one 
or two years are offered. Students will be assigned such work as 
they are able to perform, and it is thought, may obtain a good 
working knowledge of practical electricity. While no special 
preparation beyond common English branches will be required, it 


is obvious that the better one is fitted in Mathematics and Physics, 
the more he will get out of the course. 

For catalogue or other information about the College, address 

President A. W. HARRIS. 

For further information concerning the Electrical Course, address 


Professor of Physics. 


The Course in Library Economy. 

In 1880 there were 3,917 public libraries in the country ; in 1888 
there were 5,568. This growth has caused a great increase in the 
number of professional librarians and has also clone much to elevate 
the standard of preparation required by them. The first systematic 
course of instruction in library management was offered in 1887* 
Several courses have been established since, but, with the exception 
of a brief summer course, that announced in the last catalogue of 
the Maine State College is the only one offered in New England. 

The profession of the librarian appeals to many tastes. It i& 
especially attractive to women. Mr. Melvil Dewey says : "In few 
lines of work have women so nearly an equal chance with men. 
There is almost nothing in the higher branches which she cannot do- 
quite as well as a man of equal braining and experience ; and in 
much of library work woman's quick mind and deft fingers do many 
things with a neatness and despatch seldom equalled by her brothers. 
While the hours of actual service seem longer and the vacation 
shorter, I believe every teacher who has also tried library work> 
agrees that it avoids much of the nervous strain and the wear and 
tear of the class room and of the direct responsibility for pupils, 
and that physically the library is much less exacting than the shorter 
hours of the school. In fact there is hardly any occupation that 
is so free from annoying surroundings or that has so much in the 
character of the work and of the people which is grateful to a. 
refined and educated woman." 

The course of Library Economy is in the immediate charge of 
the Librarian, Harriet Converse Fernald, M. S., a graduate of the 


first class in the New York Library School. She has worked as 
cataloguer and classifier in the Saugus (Massachusetts) Public 
Library; in Bowdoin College Library; in the Library of the Union 
for Christian Work, Brooklyn, New York ; in the Maine State Col- 
lege Library, and in the Pennsylvania State College Library. Miss 
Pernald enjoys the distinction of being the only woman member of 
a college faculty in the state. 

The full force in the Library Course will be : Abram Winegard- 
ner Harris, Ph. D., President; Harriet Converse Fernald, M. S., 
Librarian and Instructor in Library Economy ; Allen Ellington 
Rogers, M. A., English Literature; Horace Melvin Estabrook, M. 
S., M. A., Modern Languages. 

It is expected that lectures will be given by librarians and others 
on various phases of library work, and by members of the faculty 
on the bibliographies of their special subjects. 

The library contains 9,000 volumes, is well selected, and is con- 
stantly receiving additions. It is furnished with the most approved 
apparatus and fittings. It is thoroughly indexed, and is arranged 
according to the Decimal Classification of Melvil Dewey. 

The College classes, collections and laboratories are open to the 
students pursuing this course. 

In preparation for this work the student should have high school 
training or its equivalent. Students coming from approved schools 
will be admitted on certificate, others will be examined in literature, 
history and general information. The course is expected to occupy 
the time of the student for one year. The work will consist of 
lectures and instruction in library handwriting, accession and order 
department routine, cataloguing, classification, loan systems, bind- 
ing, shelf arrangement, shelf listing, reference work and bibli- 
ography, literature and the history of books and printing. The 
lectures will be supplemented by practice. 

No charge is made for tuition. Each student pays for materials 
used, and an incidental charge to cover care of buildings, heat, 
etc. Orono is a place of very moderate cost and it is believed that 
a student can pursue a course here for a smaller expenditure than 
at any other College in New England. Probably $175.00 or 
$200.00 would cover the necessary expenses for a year. 

The next term will begin Wednesday, September 5, 1894, and 
close December 20 ; the second term will begin February 6, 1895, 


and close June 19. Examinations will be held on the day preced- 
ing the opening of the term . 

Persons interested are requested to correspond with the Librarian, 

For information in regard to other courses, or general informa- 
tion about the College, address 

A. W. HARRIS, President, 

Maine State College, 

Orono, Maine. 



Short Winter Lecture Course. 

This course will open annually on the First Tuesday in 
January and will continue six weeks. 

The lectures of this course will treat of chemistry, fertil- 
izers, foods, feeding and breeding animals, botany, ento- 
mology, horticulture and animal diseases. 


The expenses are within the means of anyone who would 
like to take the course. 


It is now generally conceded that Agriculture, like other callings, 
grants the largest success only to those who prepare themselves 
thoroughly for its pursuit. Moreover, in attempting to secure the 
necessary training for this business, the young man cannot afford 
to ignore that side of his future life work which touches scientific 
knowledge. Some acquaintance with the sciences in their relation 
to Agriculture is essential even for the proper comprehension and 
use of Agricultural literature, and when questions arise pertaining 
to fertility, dairy products, injurious fungi and insects, fruit cul- 
ture and many other subjects, the man who has had these matters 
presented to him in the light of recent scientific knowledge has 
greatly the advantage over some other man not so equipped. Chemi- 
cal and other scientific apparatus are now in the hands of the 
farmer and those who are using these appliances are in the fore 
front both in business success and in influence. "Knowledge is 
power," and in no department of human activity is this more 
evidently true than with the farmer who must deal with the com- 
plex and profound conditions around him, in the maintenance of 
fertility, in the feeding of animals, in the combating of farm pests 
and in acquainting himself with the large variety of plants which 
he must cultivate. The time has come when special training is as 
essential to the best success in Agriculture as it is in the professions, 
and when it is as absurd to depend upon tradition and popular 
notions in managing a farm as in healing the sick. 

Besides all this, it is to be remembered that a man's life is not 
given him simply that he may succeed in some business. The cul- 
tivation of himself is a young man's first duty, not simply because 
this is the only way to the best success in any direction, but 
because by so doing the ability is acquired to properly meet the 



obligations that rest upon him as a neighbor and as a citizen. The 
merely commercial view of education, which measures it by its dol- 
lar earning power, is a very narrow one. 

The four years of study required by the full Course in Agricul- 
ture at the Maine State College is none too long a time to devote to 
what may be termed special preparation for a life work. It is safe 
to assert that the young men who have succeeded in completing 
this course in the past, do not regret their action but rather rejoice 
in it. For those who can meet the expense, and there are but few 
who cannot do this if they are so disposed, the investment of time 
and money which this course necessitates is most wise. All young 
men who have a taste for agriculture can make no more profitable 
investment, especially those who wish to become teachers of agri- 
culture or investigators, or those who through inheritance or other- 
wise are possessed of land and means, and can enter at once into 
farming operations. s 

But there are many young men who conclude, whether they are 
right or wrong, that they cannot command so much mone} 7 or time 
as a four years course of study requires, and to such the Short 
Courses in Agriculture are offered. 

These Courses have been arranged to meet the needs, so far as 
it is possible to do so in a limited time, of those young men who 
propose to follow some branch of agriculture as a business, and 
who feel unable to take a longer course, and include among others 
the Short Winter Course described in this circular.* 

The Short Winter Course in Agriculture as given in previous 
years has varied from 12 to 16 weeks in length, this being deemed 
none too long a time for a brief course of instruction in a manner 
at all systematic and thorough. 

The attendance in previous years has not been satisfactory and 
as statements have been made which lead to the belief that there are 
those who cannot afford to leave their work even for 12 weeks but 
who would decide to do so for a shorter time, and that by reducing 
the course to six weeks a much larger number of students would 
attend, it has been decided to reduce the Short Winter Course in 
Agriculture to a term of six weeks. Heretofore the subjects pre- 
sented in this course have been quite comprehensive, including such 
special topics as dairying and horticulture, all subjects being taught 

* For other courses see the catalogue, which will be sent on application. 


to all students. In order to compensate as fully as possible for the 
decrease in time, students in the six weeks course will be allowed 
to choose a special line of instruction, so that, for instance, those 
particularly interested in gardening and fruit culture will not be 
given the lectures in subjects pertaining to dairying, and those who 
care most for dairying will not listen to the horticultural lectures. 
A general course is arranged which includes neither the horticulture 
nor the dairying, but is applicable to the general farmer. 
The instructors and subjects are as follows : 

Lecturers and Subjects. 
Allen E. Rogers, M. A., Business Law. 
Walter Flint, M. E., Care of Boilers. 
W. H. Jordan, M. S., Agricultural Chemistry. 
James M. Bartlett, M. S., Milk Testing. 
Francis L. Harvey, Ph. D., Injurious Insects and Fungi. 
Fremont L. Russell, V. S., Diseases of Animals. 
Welton M. Munson, M. S., Botany and Horticulture. 
Gilbert M. Gowell, M. S., Animal Industry and Dairying. 
The following is a brief synopsis of the matter to be presented 
under the head of the various subjects that will be treated. 

Plant and Animal Nutrition. 
Under this division will be given lectures on the chemistry of 
the soil, air and plants, the natural sources of plant food, the man- 
ner in which plants obtain their food, and the influence of tillage 
and the physical conditions of the soil upon the growth and welfare 
of plants ; the chemistry of cattle foods and of the animal, the 
physiology and chemistry of animal nutrition and the chemistry of 
milk and its relation to food. 

Milk Testing. 

Students will be taught the use of the Babcock test in testing 
milk, cream and the waste product of the dairy, and the applica- 
tion of this test to the business of the private dairyman, and of 
butter and cheese factories. 


98 maine state college. 

Commercial and Farm Manures and Cropping. 
The lectures under this head will treat of the origin, composition, 
preparation and use of commercial fertilizers, the composition, 
production, care and use of farm manures, and the practical con- 
siderations, including rotation of crops, which apply to the main- 
tenance of the fertility of the soil. 

Animal Industry. 

Lectures will be given upon the origin, formation and character- 
istics of the various breeds of cattle, horses, sheep and swine, and 
methods of improvement. 

Forms and types will be illustrated by animals at the College 
and elsewhere. 

Practice in judging by scales of points, and tracing and tabu- 
lating pedigrees will be given. Handling and feeding, composition 
of foods, and formation of rations for different purposes will 
receive adequate attention. 

Dairy Husbandry. 

The instruction will consist of lectures upon all phases of the 
subject from the formation of the milk to the finishing and mar- 
keting of its various products. 

Dairy Hall, with its thorough equipment, furnishes opportunities 
for the practical handling of milk, and manufacturing it into 
different forms of cheese and butter, using the gravity and centri- 
fugal devices for cream separation. 

Students will be made familiar with the various tests for deter- 
mining the purity and value of milk, together with the details of 
the business management of creameries and factories. 

Economic Botany. 
This subject will include a general survey of the organs of 
plants, their structure and functions ; effects of heat, light and 
moisture on the plant, with practical applications to plant life on 
the farm ; also notes concerning the groups of plants most impor- 
tant in agricultural and horticultural work, 

maine state college. 99 

The course in practical horticulture will include directions for 
the planting and management of the vegetable garden, the orchard 
and the small fruit plantation. Methods of propagation, selection 
of varieties and the treatment of enemies and diseases of plants 
will receive special attention. The College forcing-houses will be 
open at all times and will furnish excellent opportunities for prac- 
tical illustrations. 

Injurious Insects and Fungi. 
The instruction in this line will be chiefly directed to those fungi 
and insects which work injury to farm and garden crops and to 
domestic animals, together with a discussion of the best methods 
of preventing their ravages. 

Business Law. 

The lectures in business law will consist of discussions of the 
elementary principles of municipal law with which every citizen 
should be conversant, those questions which may most frequently 
present themselves to the farmer receiving more special attention. 

Veterinary Science. 

The time under this head will be devoted to lectures, demonstra- 
tion, clinics and quizzes. 

The lectures will be illustrated by models, prepared specimens 
and living subjects. 

1st. They will treat chiefly of the anatomy and physiology of 
our domestic animals. 2nd. The prevention of disease, particular 
attention being given to diseases of dairy stock and such important 
diseases as tuberculosis, glanders and hog cholera. 3d. The care 
of sick animals including methods of administering medicine. 4th. 
The treatment of the most common and simple diseases. 5th. The 
method of determining the age of horses and cattle. 

Division of Lectures. 
The lectures are grouped in three divisions. Each division is 
arranged for four lectures per day during thirty days, or one hun- 
dred and twenty lectures in all. 



Each student can attend the lectures of but one division, and 
should be prepared on coming to make his selection. 

General Course. 

Plant and Animal Nutrition 20 lectures. 

Commercial Fertilizers and Farm Manures. . 10 

Breeds, Breeding and Feeding .25 

Agricultural Engineering 15 

Injurious Insects and Fungi 15 

Veterinary Science 20 

Business Law 1 5 

Course in Dairy Farming. 

Plant and Animal Nutrition 20 lectures. 

Commercial and Farm Manures 10 

Breeds, Breeding and Feeding .25 

Milk, Butter, Cheese (Dairying) 20 

Milk Testing 5 

Care of Boilers 5 

Veterinary Science 20 

Business Law. 15 

Course in Horticulture. 

Plant and Animal Nutrition 20 lectures. 

Commercial and Farm Manures 10 tc 

Economic Botany 15 u 

Vegetable Gardening and Fruit Growing .30 " 

Farm Machinery 10 " ' 

Injurious Insects and Fungi 15 " 

Business Law 15 " 

Who Will be Admitted to This Course? 

Any one will be admitted to this course who can take it with 

any degree of profit. Young men who expect to be farmers, 

young farmers who have entered upon the management of a. farm 

or fruit plantation, or even those who have followed agriculture for 



sonic years, are earnestly invited to avail themselves of the advan- 
tages of this course of lectures. Those who desire 1 to fit themselves 
for expert operatives in butter and cheese factories or in horticul- 
ture arc allowed to vary their course of study with this end in view. 

Requirements . 
For admission to this course, applicants should possess a good 
common school education. While no formal entrance examination 
is required, the Professor in charge will satisfy himself of the fit- 
ness of candidates to pursue the course with success. 


All students will provide themselves with two white drilling suits 
for dairy work. These suits can be conveniently obtained at Orono. 

The expense of table board is about $3.00. Board and room, 
from $3.50 to $4.00 a week. Students in this course will be pro- 
vided with rooms and board at the college so far as practicable, 
but for the most part, will, of necessity, find accommodations at 
the village of Orono, one mile from the college. 

Tuition will be free. 

The entire cost of the course need not exceed $25, exclusive of 
travelling expenses. 

The course will open at the college on Tuesday, January 1st, 
and will continue six full w r eeks. 

For further particulars address, 

Professor W. H. Jordan, 

Orono, Me. 

For particulars regarding other courses in the college, address, 

President A. W. Harris, 

Orono, Me. 

Maine State College, j 
Orono, Me., Oct. 15, 1894. j 



Maine State College 




Burleigh & Flynt, Printers to the State 



Calendar, 7 

Establishment of the College, 9 

Endowment and Income of the College, 10 

The Board of Trustees, 11 

Committees : 

Committee on the Final Examinations, 12 

Committee on the Prentiss Prize, 12 

Committee on the Prentiss Declamation Prize, 12 

Committee on the Libbey Prize, 12 

The Experiment Station Council, 13 

The Faculty, 14 

Admission : 

By Examination, 17 

By Certificate, 20 

List of Approved Schools, 20 

The Material Equipment : 

Wiogate Hall, 23 

Oak Hall, 23 

The Chemistry Building, 23 

Coburn Hall, 24 

The Machine Shop, 25 

The Experiment Station Building, 25 

The Horticultural Building, 25 

The Dairy Building, 26 

Other Buildiugs, 26 

The Courses of Instruction : 

General Statement, . . 27 

Explanation of Tables , 29 



The Courses of Instruction : 

Studies of the Freshman Year, All Courses, 30 

The Scientific Course, 31 

The Chemical Course, 34 

The Pharmacy Course, '■ 36 

The Preparatory Medical Course, » 36 

The Agricultural Course, 37 

The Civil Engineering Course, 41 

The Mechanical Engineering Course, 44 

The Electrical Engineering Course, 46 

The Short Courses : 

The Course of two years in Pharmacy, 48 

The Course in Library Economy, 48 

The Course of two years in Electrical Engineering, 49 

The Courses of one and two years in Agriculture, 51 

Special Courses, 51 

The Departments of Instruction : 

Mathematics and Astronomy, 52 

Rhetoric and Modern Languages, 54 

Logic and English Literature, 55 

Civics, 56 

Chemistry, 58 

Physics, 60 

Natural History, 61 

Agriculture, 63 

Horticulture, 65 

Drawing, 66 

Civil Engineering, 66 

Mechanical Engineering, 69 

Electrical Engineering, 72 

Military Science and Tactics, ° 73 

The Training School in Agriculture : 

The General Course, 75 

The Course in Dairy Farming, 75 

The Course in Horticulture, 76 

The Summer School, 77 

Extension Courses, 77 

The Farm Course, » 78 



The Training School in Agriculture: 

The Library and Reading Room, . • . • 7 ( .) 

The Museum, • 80 

The Agricultural Experiment Station, 81 

The Field Day, 84 

The Government of the College, < 85 

Expenses, 87 

College Organizations : 

The Fraternities, 89 

College Associations, 89 

The Young Men's Christian Association, 89 

The Alumni Associations, 89 

The College Publications : 

The Annual Catalogue, 91 

The Annual Report, 91 

The College Bulletins, 91 

The College Circulars, 91 

The Experiment Station Bulletins, 91 

The Cadet, 91 

The Prism, 91 

The Commencement : 

The Programme, 92 

Degrees, 92 

Scholarships, 94 

Prizes, 94 

Honors, 96 

The Kittredge Loan Fund, 97 

The Coburn Loan Fund, 97 

Public Worship, 98 

Location, 98 

Military Instruction, 99 

The Catalogue of Students, 102 














FALL TEEM, 1894. 

3, Monday, Bef ore-term examinations begin. 

4, Tuesday, Entrance examinations begin. 

5, Wednesday, Fall term begins. 

j n a y> l Annual military encampment. 
12, Friday, i J 

27, Tuesday, Meeting of the Board of Trustees. 
29, Thursday, j Thanksgiving reC ess. 

2, Sunday, J 

7, Friday, Sophomore Prize Declamation. 

18, Tuesday, Term examinations begin. 
20, Thursday, Term ends. 










































































Bef ore-term examinations begin. 
Entrance examinations begin. 
Spring term begins. 
Washington's birthday. 
Fast day. 
Arbor day. 
Decoration day. 
Ivy day. 

Senior vacation begins. 
Field day of the agricultural depart- 
Junior exhibition . 
Baccalaureate sermon. 
Class day. 

Commencement oration. 
Meeting of the Board of Trustees. 
Exhibition drill. 
Receptions by the fraternities. 
Reception by the President. 
Commencement dinner. 
Meeting of the Alumni Association. 
Commencement concert. 
Entrance examinations begin. 


FALL TERM, 1895. 

September 2, Monday, Bef ore-term examinations begin. 

September 3, Tuesday, Entrance examinations begin. 

September 4, Wednesday, Fall term begins. 

October 4, Friday, j Anmml mm encampment. 

October 11, Friday, i J F 

November 26, Tuesday, Meeting of the Board of Trustees. 

November 28, Thursday, } Thanksgiving recess . 

December 1, Sunday, ) 

December 6, Friday, Sophomore Prize Declamation. 

December 17, Tuesday, Term examinations begin. 

December 19, Thursday, Term ends. 


February 3, Monday, Bef ore-term examinations begin. 
February 4, Tuesday, Entrance examinations begin. 
February 5, Wednesday, Spring term begins. 

June 18, Wednesday, Commencement. 




By an Act of Congress, approved July 2, 1862, it was provided 
that there should be granted to the several States public lands, 
u thirty thousand acres for each Senator and Representative in 
Congress," from the sale of which there should be established a 
perpetual fund "the interest of which shall be inviolably appro- 
priated, by each State which may take and claim the benefit of 
this act, to the endowment, support, and maintenance of at least 
one college where the leading object shall be, without excluding 
other scientific and classical studies, and including military tac- 
tics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agricul- 
ture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of 
the States may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the 
liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the sev- 
eral pursuits and professions in life." The Act forbade the use 
of any portion of the principal or interest of this fund, for the 
purchase, erection, or maintenance of any building or buildings ; 
and the several States claiming and taking the benefit of the 
provisions of the Act were required, u to provide within five 
years not less than one college" for carrying out the purposes 
of the Act. 

In 1863, the State accepted this grant, and by an Act of the 
Legislature, passed in 1865, Samuel F. Perley, Hannibal Hamlin, 
and fourteen other persons were ''constituted a body politic and 
corporate, by the name of the Trustees of the State College of 
Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts, with power to establish and 
maintain such a college as is provided for in the Act of Congress, 
and they were made entitled to receive the income accruing "from 
the funds granted to the State by the Act of Congress aforesaid." 
To the Trustees was granted the right to receive and hold 
donations or benefactions, to select the professors and other 
officers of the college, to establish the conditions for admission, to 
lay out courses of study, to grant degrees, and to exercise other 
usuaFpowers and privileges. 



To the Governor and Council was granted the power, a at all 
times, by themselves, or such committee as they shall appoint, 
to examine into the affairs of the College, and the doings of the 
trustees, and to inspect all their records and accounts and the 
buildings and premises occupied by the College." 

It was provided that the College should teach such studies, in 
addition to those required by the Act of Congress, as the facili- 
ties would permit. Military instruction was explicitly ordered, 
and the adjutant general of the State was authorized to furnish 
arms and equipment for military drill, and directed to "furnish to 
the College a United States flag." 

Tuition was made free, and the trustees and all persons em- 
ployed by them, were directed to make the expenses of students 
as small as possible. 


The State of Maine received, under the Act of Congress, two hun- 
dred and forty thousand acres of public land, from which the Col- 
lege has realized an endowment fund of about $131,000. To this 
have been added $100,000, by the bequest of Abner Coburn of Skow- 
hegan, who was for many years president of the Board of Trustees. 

The town of Orono contributed $8,000, and the town of Old- 
town $3,000 for the purchase of the site on which the college 
buildings stand. The State has appropriated about $250,000, 
mostly for the material equipment. 

Under an Act of Congress approved March 2, 1887, the College 
receives $15,000 annually for the maintenance of its experimental 
work in agriculture. This is in charge of the department known 
as the Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Under an Act of Congress approved August 30, 1890, the Col- 
lege received for its more complete endowment and maintenance 
"the sum of fifteen thousand dollars for the year ending June 
thirtieth, eighteen hundred and ninety." The Act provided that 
this amount should be increased by one thousand dollars each 
year until the annual appropriation should reach twenty-five 
thousand dollars, and then remain at this sum. 



Term Expires. 
The Hon. HENRY LORD, President, Bangor, ...April 17, 1901. 

LL. B., Secretary, Waterville, Dec. 30, 1895. 

RUTILLUS ALDEN, Winthrop, April 17, 1895. 


Presque Isle, April JL7, 1896. 


Auburn, April 17, 1897. 


Hartland, April 17, 1898. 


Skowhegan, April 17, 1899. 

Limerick, April 17, 1900. 

Trustees LORD, HAINES and ALLEN. 












Trustee KUTILLUS ALDEN, Winthrop. 

Trustee BENJAMIN F. BRIGGS, . Auburn. 

President, ABRAM W. HARRIS, Sc. D., President, ...Orono. 

Professor FRANCIS L. HARVEY, Ph. D., Orono. 

Director WHITMAN H. JORDAN, M. S., Secretary, ..Orono. 
Representative D. H. KNOWLTON, M. A., 

State Pomological Society, Farmington. 

Representative B. WALKER McKEEN, 

State Board of Agriculture Fryeburg. 

Trustee ARTHUR L. MOORE, B. S., Limerick. 

Professor WELTON M. MUNSON, M.S., Orono. 

Professor FREMONT L. RUSSELL, V. S., Orono. 

Representative O. O. CROSBY, 

Maine State Grange, Albion. 



Abeam Winegardner Harris, Sc. D., Campus. 


George Herbert Hamlin, C. E., Main Street. 

Professor of Civil Engineering. 

Alfred Bellamy Atjbert, M. S., Campus. 

Professor of Chemistry. 

Allen Ellington Rogers, M. A., College Street. 

Professor of History, Logic, and Civics! 

Walter Flint, M. E., Bennoch Street. 

Professor of Mechanical Engineering. 

Whitman Howard Jordan, M. S., Main Street. 

Professor of Agriculture and Director of 
the Experiment Station. 

James Monroe Bartlett, M. S., College Street. 

Chemist of the Experiment Station. 

Francis LePoy Harvey, Ph. D., Forest Avenue. 

Professor of Natural History and Ento- 
mologist of the Experiment Station. 

Lucius Herbert Merrill, B. S., Forest Avenue. 

Chemist of the Experiment Station. 

*James^Norris Hart, C. E., North Main Street. 

Professor of Mathematics and 

Howard Scott Webb, B. M. E., North Main Street. 

Instructor in Shop-work, Secretary 
and Pegistrar. 

* On leave. 


Fremont Lincoln Russell, V. S., College Street. 

Veterinarian of the Experiment Station. 

Nathan Clifford Grover, B. C. E., Campus. 

Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering. 

Harriet Converse Fernald, M. S., North Main Street. 


Welton Marks Munson, M. S., Campus. 

Professor of Horticulture and Horticulturist of 
the Experiment Station. 

Horace Melvyn Estabrooke, M. S., M. A., Main Street. 

Professor of Rhetoric and Modern 

James Stacy Stevens, Ph. D., Bennoch Street. 

Professor of Physics. 

Mark Leslie Hersey, M. A., First Lieutenant, 

U. S. Infantry, Main Street. 

Professor of Military Science and Instructor 
in Physical Culture. 

Gilbert Mottier Gowell, M. S., Campus. 

Professor of Animal Industry. 

Dayid Wilder Colby, B. S., Campus. 

Instructor in Chemistry. 

Harris Perley Gould, B. S., Campus. 

Assistant in Horticulture in the Experiment 

Ernest Pitney Chapin, M. E., North Main Street. 

Instructor in^Electrical Engineering. 

George Parker Cowan, B. C. E., Bangor. 

Tutor in Civil Engineering. 

Albert Joseph Durgin, Pine Street. 

Assistant in Wood-work. 

George Harry Hall, B. M. E., Oak Hall. 

Meteorological Observer in the Experiment 



Applicants for admission to the college must pass the required 
examinations, or present satisfactory certificates of fitness, and 
file|with the Treasurer a bond for $150 signed by two bondsmen, 
as security for the payment of dues to the college. No distinc- 
tion is made in regard to sex or place of residence. Entrance 
may be made at any time. Candidates for advanced standing, 
unless they present certificates of fitness, are examined in the 
preparatory studies in addition to those previously pursued by 
the classes they propose to enter, or in other equivalent studies. 

A student who has accomplished half or more of the preparatory 
course may be examined on that part, and receive credit there- 
for. In such a case, he will be examined, in any subsequent year 
in which he may present himself, only on those studies on which 
he has not already passed. But no credit will be given unless 
the candidate is able to pass on at least half of the preparatory 

As the required work of the college includes an unusually large 
amount of mathematics, and since success in the engineering 
courses requires the ability to make easy use of the higher 
mathematics, it is desirable that students preparing for admission 
to the college be subjected to the most rigorous drill in this 

Attention is called to the need of careful preparation in English. 
This should include the rapid reading of numerous standard 
works of fiction, the careful reading of other standard works, the 
writing of themes based upon this reading, and the frequent 
writing of themes on simple and familiar subjects, with exercises 
in punctuation, capitalization, etc. 

Persons who are not candidates for a degree, and who wish to 
take special studies, will be permitted to do so upon giving satis- 
factory evidence that they are prepared to take the desired 
studies. If they subsequently desire to become candidates for a 
degree, or to take a regular course, they may be required to pass 
the entrance examinations. 

No examinations are required for admission to the winter short 



Examinations are held at the college, beginning on the day 
before the opening of each term, and on the day after commence- 
ment. Examinations are also held, if desired, in each county 
of the State and in other places. The examinations in places 
other than the college are held on the day after commencement, 
and persons desiring examinations at such places must notify the 
President of the college not later than June 1. 

To save expense to candidates, special local examinations will 
be given when satisfactory arrangements can be made. Upon 
request, questions will be sent to any principal, or other satis- 
factory person who will consent to conduct the examination for 
the accommodation of the candidate. The questions are to be 
submitted under the usual restrictions of a written examination, 
and the answers returned to the college accompanied by the 
indorsement of the examiner that the examination has been 
properly made. The student desiring to take advantage of this 
provision must secure the consent of a proper person to take 
charge of the examination, and make early request to the Presi- 
dent of the college to have examination questions sent. 

The examinations will cover the followiug topics : 

Arithmetic. — Simple and denominate numbers ; ratio and pro- 
portion ; common and decimal fractions; percentage; metric 
system of weights and measures ; square root. A satisfactory i. 
treatment of these subjects may be found in Went worth and 
HilFs, Greenleaf's, or the Franklin Arithmetic. It is important 
that definite ideas of the units of the metric system should be 
obtained. A thorough drill in mental arithmetic with a book 
like Colburn's is recommended. 

Algebra. — Fundamental operations ; use of parentheses ; fac- 
toring; highest common factor; lowest common multiple; frac- 
tions, simple and complex; simple equations, with one or more 
unknown quantities ; involution of monomials and polynomials ; 
evolution of monomials and polynomials ; the theory of exponents, 
with applications ; radicals, including rationalization, imaginary 
quantities, properties of quadratic surds, square root of a binomial 
surd, and solution of equations containing radicals; quadratic 
equations; equations in the quadratic form; simultaneous quad- 
ratic equations ; ratio and proportion ; arithmetical progression ; 
geometrical progression. A satisfactory treatment of these 
topics may be found in Greenleaf's Elementary, Neweomb's, 
Wells' Academic or Wentworth's School Algebra. 

Plane Geometry. — The first five books of Chauvenet's, Wells', 
or Wentworth's Geometry. The preparation should include the 
solution of numerical exercises, the demonstration of original 


propositions, and the construction of geometrical figures in a 
neat and careful manuer with dividers and ruler. The examina- 
tion will include some propositions for original demonstration or 

Political Geography. — Location of continents, mountain 
ranges, peninsulas, isthmuses, islands, capes; location of oceans, 
bays, sounds, straits, lakes and rivers ; location and boundaries 
of countries and states ; location of important seaports, commer- 
cial cities and capitals ; approximate latitude and longitude of 
important places. 

Physical Geography.— Definition of terms; motions, form, 
size of the earth ; magnetic action ; physical features of the con- 
tinents ; relief forms ; currents of air and water ; volcanoes, earth- 
quakes, geysers, etc. ; forms of water ; climate; drainage; tides; 
meteorology, clouds, rain, dew, etc. ; glaciers and icebergs ; races ; 
metals and minerals ; fauna and flora. 

Physiology. — Cells and tissues, skeleton, muscles, blood and 
circulation, respiration, nutrition and digestion, lymphatic sys- 
tem, excretory organs, nervous system, special senses, hygiene. 

English. — Each candidate will be required to write a short 
essay upon a subject announced at the time of the examination. 
This essay will be expected to show a general familiarity with 
the works mentioned below, and will be examined with especial 
attention to accuracy of grammar, spelling, and punctuation. 
In 1895 subjects for this essay will be taken from two or more of 
the following works, candidates being required, however, to be 
prepared on all of them : Shakspere's Merchant of Venice and 
Twelfth Night, Milton's L' Allegro, II Penseroso, Comus, and 
Lycidas, Longfellow's Evangeline, the Sir Roger de Coverley 
Papers in the Spectator, Macaulay's Essay on Milton and Essay 
on Addison, Webster's First Bunker Hill Oration, Irving's Sketch 
Book, Scott's Abbot. 
Beginning with 1896 the English requirements will be as follows : 
I. Beading and Practice. Each candidate will be required 
to present evidence of a general knowledge of the sub- 
stance of the books mentioned below and to answer simple 
questions on the lives of their authors. The examination will 
usually be the writing of a paragraph or two on each of several 
topics. The treatment of these topics is designed to test the 
power of clear and accurate expression, and will call for only a 
general knowledge of the substance of the books. In place of this 
test, the candidate may present an exercise book, certified by his 
instructor, containing compositions or other written work done 
in connection with the reading of the books. 


In 1896, this part of the examination will be based upon : 
Shakspere's Midsummer Night's Dream, Defoe's History of the 
Plague in London, Irving's Tales of a Traveller, Scott's Wood 
stock, Macaulay's Essay on Milton, Longfellow's Evangeline, 
George Eliot's Silas Marner. 

In 1897, it will be based upon : Shakspere's As You Like It, 
Defoe's History of the Plague in London, Irving's Tales of a 
Traveller, Hawthorne's Twice Told Tales, Longfellow's Evange- 
line, George Eliot's Silas Marner. 

In 1898 it will be based upon : Milton's Paradise Lost, Books I 
and II, Pope's Iliad, Books I and XXII, the Sir Roger de Cover- 
ley Papers in the Spectator, Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield, 
Coleridge's Ancient Mariner, Southey's Life of Nelson, Carlyle's 
Essay on Burns, Lowell's Vision of Sir Launfal, Hawthorne's 
House of the Seven Gables. 

II. Study and Practice. This part of the examination pre- 
supposes a careful study of the works named below. The exami- 
nation will be upon subject-matter, form, and structure ; and will 
also test the candidate's ability to express his knowledge with 
clearness and accuracy. 

In 1896, this part of the examination will be based upon : 
Shakspere's Merchant of Venice, Milton's L'Allegro, II Penseroso, 
Comus, and Lycidas, Webster's first Bunker Hill Oration. 

In 1897, it will be based upon Shakspere's Merchant of Venice, 
Burke's Speech on Conciliation with America, Scott's Marmion, 
Macaulay's Life of Samuel Johnson. 

In 1898, it will be based upon Shakspere's Macbeth, Burke's 
Speech on Conciliation with America, DeQuincey's Flight of a 
Tartar Tribe, Tennyson's Princess. 

United States History. — The voyages and discoveries of 
Columbus and of the other early navigators and adventurers ; the 
circumstances that led to the founding of the different colonies ; 
the causes, leading events, and results of the War of the Revolu- 
tion ; the Articles of Confederation and the causes leading to the 
adoption of our present Constitution; the extent of the United 
States at the close of the Revolution and additions made to our 
national territory since ; the National and State governments ; 
the causes and results of the second war with England, and of 
the war with Mexico ; the causes, leading events and results of 
the War of the Rebellion ; history of the United States since the 
close of this war. 

English Grammar. — Definition of terms ; formation of plural 
number and possessive case of nouns ; inflection of pronouns ; 
comparison of adjectives and adverbs ; the agreement of verbs 
with their subjects, and of pronouns with their antecedents ; the 


synopsis of the verb ; the analysis of sentences ; the application 
of the rules of syntax. Special attention should be given to 
punctuation and use of capital letters. 

Botany. — In 1896, candidates will be examined in elementary- 
botany. Any course will be satisfactory which brings the pupil 
into contact with plants. In schools possessing compound micro- 
scopes work should be done such as is presented in Bessey's 
Essentials of Botany, Arthur, Barnes and Coulter's Handbook 
of Plant Dissection, or Campbell's Structural and Systematic 
Botany. In case no compound microscopes are available such a. 
text as Gray's Text Book, revised edition, should be used, as 
both recitation book and laboratory guide. 


Any preparatory school whose course of instruction covers the 
requirements for admission to the college, may be admitted to 
its list of approved schools. Application for such approval 
should be made to the President of the college, and must be 
accompanied by a detailed statement of the course of study, or a 
catalogue of the school. 

A committee of the college faculty will examine the course of 
study and the methods of instruction, and upon the favorable 
report of the committee, the school will be placed upon the list 
of approved schools. 

Candidates for admission to the college from these schools will 
be admitted to the Freshman Class upon the certificate of the 
principals, showing that the required studies have been com- 
pleted satisfactorily. Certificates must be made out on blanks 
furnished by the college. Certificates will not be received in 
place of examinations for work of the Freshman year. 

A school once entered upon the approved list, will remaia 
there until the college gives notice of unsatisfactory results. 


Bangor High School, Bangor, 

Henry K. White, M. A., Principals 
Bar Harbor High School, Bar Harbor, 

Prescott Keyes, Jr., B. C. E., Principal. 
Bath High School, Bath, 

H. E. Cole, Principal. 
Boynton High School, Eastport, 

J. B. Warren, M. A., Principals 


Brewer High School, Brewer, 

F. W. Freeman, M. A., Principal. 
Bridgton Academy, North Bridgton, 

G. II. Larrabee, M. A., Principal. 
Coburn Classical Institute, Waterville, 

Frank W. Johnson, M. A., Principal. 
Cony High School, Augusta, 

A. H. Brainard, M. A., Principal. 
Corinth Academy, East Corinth, 

A. W. Meserve, Principal. 
Deering High School, Deering, 

Edgar H. Crosby, M. A., Principal. 
Dover High School, Dover, 

C. N. Blanchard, Principal. 
East Maine Conference Seminary, Bucksport, 

Rev. A. F. Chase, Ph. D., President. 
Ellsworth High School, Ellsworth, 

W. H. Dresser, B. A., Principal. 
English High School, Boston, Mass., 

F. A. Waterhonse, Head Master. 
Eoxcroft Academy, Foxcroft, 

E L. Sampson, M. A., Principal. 
~Framingham High School, Framingham, Mass., 

J. H. Parsons, Principal. 
Gardiner High School, Gardiner, 

William L. Powers, Principal % 
Greeley Institute, Cumberland Center, 

Fairfield Whitney, M. A., Principal. 
Hampden Academy, Hampden, 

Albert Robinson, B. A., Principal. 
Lincoln Academy, West Poland, 

F. E. Hanscom, Principal. 
Maine Wesleyan Seminary, Kent's Hill, 

Eev. G. W. Gallagher, D. D., President. 
Milo High School, Milo, 

George H. Gould, Principal. 
Monson Academy, Monson, 

L. E. Moulton, Principal. 
North Yarmouth Academy, Yarmouth, 

Eev. P. B. Snow, M. A., Principal. 
Norway High School, Norway, 

Charles P. Barnes, Principal. 
Orono High School, Orono, 

S. H. Powell, Principal. 
Portland High School, Portland, 

Albro E. Chase, Principal. 


Bicker Classical Institute, Houlton, 

A. M. Thomas, M. A., Principal. 
Rockland High School, Rockland, 

Harry Landes, Principal. 
Skowhegan High School, SJcowhegan, 

W. 1ST. Donovan, B. A., Principal. 
Thornton Academy, Saco, 

Edwin P. Sampson, Principal. 
Waterville High School, Waterville, 

Dennis E. Bowman, Principal. 
Washington Academy, East Machias, 

I. H. Eobinson, Principal. 
Westbrook High School, Westbroolc, 

M. H. Small, Principal. 
Yarmouth High School, Yarmouthville, 

H. M. Moore, B. A., Principal* 



WINGATE HALL. — The most conspicuous building on the 
campus, Wingate Hall, named in honor of William P. Wingate 
of Bangor, who was long an honored member of the board of 
trustees, is a three-story brick structure rectangular in form, with 
a handsome tower furnished with a clock. It was erected for 
the departments of civil and mechanical engineering, but is at 
present occupied in part by other departments. On the ground 
floor are two large designing rooms, recitation rooms, armory, 
instrument rooms, and private offices for the professors of civil 
and mechanical engineering. On the second floor is a handsome 
room occupied by the Young Men's Christian Association, the 
recitation rooms of the professors of mathematics, modern lan- 
guages, and physics, an apparatus room, and two private offices. 
On the third floor are the large drawing rooms, well lighted, and 
said to be the best of their kind in New England. In the base- 
ment are the testing room and a large room used as an electrical 
laboratory. The testing room contains a Riehle testing machine 
of 60,000-pounds capacity, a cement testing machine, and a dyn- 
amo capable of supplying power for twenty-five lamps. The 
testing machines and the dynamo are driven by the engine used 
for forcing air through the building. The electrical laboratory 
is fitted up for twenty students and contains the instruments of 
precision used in the Junior year. 

OAK HALL. — North of Wingate Hall is Oak Hall, named in 
honor of Lyndon Oak of Garland, for many years a useful mem- 
ber of the board of trustees, a substantial four-story brick build- 
ing used as a dormitory. It contains forty-nine rooms for stu- 
dents, bath rooms and reading room, is heated by steam, sup- 
plied with water, and lighted by electricity. Connected with 
Oak Hall by a corridor is the boarding house. 

THE CHEMISTRY BUILDING.— The Chemistry Building, 
a two-story brick building, south of Wingate Hall, contains 
twelve large, well lighted and well arranged rooms devoted to 
the needs of the department of chemistry. On the first floor are 


the qualitative and quantitative laboratories, supplied with fume 
closets, water and gas; and the quantitative laboratory has in 
addition, steam cups for evaporation, and drying closets. On 
this floor are a recitation room, a balance room, supplied with an 
assay balance and eight fine anatytical balances, a stock room 
containing all necessary apparatus, and the office and private 
laboratory of the professor of chemistry. On the second floor 
are a large lecture room, the museum of chemistry, the laboratory 
of mineralogy, equipped with the apparatus necessary for the 
determination of minerals, and a room for use in spectroscopic and 
sugar work, gas analysis, water analysis, and original investiga- 
tion. In this room is also an outfit for bacteriological examina- 
tion of water, including two Peichert's microscopes, with six 
objectives, thermostats, and heating apparatus, and sterilizers for 
steam and dry heat, together with all necessary accessories. A 
room under the roof is fitted up for photographic work ; adjoin- 
ing this is a well equipped dark room. The photographic outfit 
includes a burnisher, copying camera, an 8 by 10 camera with 
Zeiss an astigmatic lens for use in preparing topographical maps 
for engineers from photographs. In the basement is an assay 
laboratory supplied with large and small furnaces, a crusher, 
grinding plate, etc. 

The department of chemistry is well supplied with lecture 
apparatus for illustrative purposes, the latest additions being a 
large induction coil, and several of the newest forms of Hoff- 
man's apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition and synthe- 
sis of liquids and gases. 

The greater part of the chemical library, including the current 
and bound volumes of magazines, is kept in the Chemistry 

COBUKN" HALL.— Directly south of the Chemistry Building 
is Coburn Hall, named in honor of Abner Coburn of Skowhegan, 
the chief benefactor of the College. It is a brick building, three 
stories in height and finished in hard woods. On the first floor 
is an admirably equipped physical laboratory, a laboratory and 
a lecture room for the department of agriculture, and the library. 
The latter is a well lighted room about forty feet square, fitted 
up with the best modern library furniture. About 9,000 volumes, 
exclusive of pamphlets, are on its shelves, and the number of 
books is rapidly increasing. On the walls are portraits of Gov- 
ernor Coburn, President Allen, and President Fernald. On the 
second floor are the botanical and entomological laboratories and 
lecture rooms for the professor of natural history and the pro- 
fessor of civics. Directly over the library is the museum, a 
handsome room extending through two stories. The collections 
exhibited here, already large and constantly increasing, will soon 
outgrow their present quarters. On the third floor is the col- 
lege chapel capable of seating four hundred persons. 


THE MACHINE SHOP.— In the rear of the Chemistry Build- 
ing is the Machine Shop, a wooden building L25 feet long, and 
two stories high, containing a foundry, forge shop, carpenter 
shop, machine shop, and tool room. The following is a partial 
list of the equipment of the shops : Foundry — one 18-inch cupola 
furnace; six 50-pound ladles; one 100-pound ladle; one 200- 
pound ladle ; eight sets of slickers, trowels, rammers, shovels, 
bellows, etc. ; fifty flasks. Forge shop — eighteen power blast 
forges ; champion hand forge ; eighteen anvils ; eighteen full sets 
of tongs and cutters ; a set of heading tools ; number 3 Sturtevant 
blower; number 5 Buffalo exhaust fan; blacksmith's vise; four 
blacksmith's 10-pound sledges ; 6-pound sledge. Machine shop — 
seven engine lathes ; Gray planer ; Flather planer ; Hendey 
shaper; number 14 Brainard milling machine; Prentiss drill; 
Slate sensitive drill ; double head emery grinder ; full sets of 
taps, dies, reamers, mandrels, drills, milling cutters, wrenches, 
chucks, and lathe dogs ; benches and vises for sixteen men. Car- 
penter shop — one Colburn saw bench, with attachments ; one 
ordinary saw bench; jig saw; 20-inch planer; 12-inch buzz 
planer; two 16-inch pattern lathes, with two sets of turning 
tools, calipers, rests, etc. ; little giant tool grinder ; nineteen sets 
of carpenter's tools, work benches, vises, and cases for tools. 
Power for running the machinery is furnished by a 10-horse- 
power steam engine. 

THE EXPERIMENT STATION. -South of the Machine 
Shop stands a substantial two -story brick building which is 
devoted to the uses of the Agricultural Experiment Station. 
On the ground floor are the reading room, reagent room, Direc- 
tors' private laboratory, nitrogen room, and the laboratory used 
in the analysis of fertilizers, and in original investigation. On 
the second floor are the general office, the director's private 
office, the bacteriological laboratory, and a storage room for 
books and pamphlets. The building is heated by steam, lighted 
by gas, and thoroughly equipped with apparatus. 

ment Station is the Horticultural Building, consisting of a head- 
house and three greenhouses. In the head-house are the office 
of the professor of horticulture, a working room, a seed storage 
room, a photographing room, an attendant's room, and a room 
used for storage. The main greenhouse, 20 feet by 100 feet, is 
devoted to the use of the Experiment Station, and to the instruc- 
tion of students. A second greenhouse, 20 feet by 80 feet, run- 
ning parallel to the first, contains. a potting room and a cold- 
forcing room. The third greenhouse is designed for investigations 
in plant nutrition. In the south end of this building is the con- 


THE DAIRY BUILDING.— The Dairy Building, 50 feet by 
42 feet, contains a milk room, a butter room, a cheese room, a 
cold storage room, a cheese curing room, a lecture room, the 
office of the professor of animal industry, and a laboratory. It 
is supplied with a Sharpless cream separator, a United States 
butter extractor, a De Laval hand cream separator, creamers, 
churns, butter workers, cream and cheese tempering vats, weigh- 
ing tanks, Babcock testers and other appliances necessary for 
teaching the most approved methods of handling milk, cream, 
butter and cheese. The building is heated by steam and sup- 
plied with hot and cold water. Power is furnished by a 6-horse- 
power engine, and by a baby tread horse power. 

OTHEK BUILDINGS.— In addition to the buildings already 
described, there are nine others devoted to various college pur- 
poses. These include the President's house, two fraternity club 
houses, a chapter house, the gymnasium, the farm house, two 
large barns, and the stable. 



The Maine State College is a school of science and technology. 
It offers no instruction in the ancient languages, but gives a full 
list of courses in the natural and exact sciences, and in their 
technical applications. None of its courses are without a full 
complement of those studies which are especially useful for gen- 
eral training and culture. 

The first year, which is practically the same for all courses, is 
largely taken up with mathematics, natural science and English, 
which form the basis for all the future work. Extended courses 
in chemistry and physics are required of all students, and especial 
attention is given by students in all departments of the College 
to the study of English, modern languages and civics. 

The Courses of Study Leading to Degrees are eight, 
each requiring four years for completion. 

The Scientific Course is the basis course, from which the tech- 
nical courses diverge. It is designed for those who seek the 
College for general culture and training. It differs from the usual 
college course by omitting Latin and Greek, and substituting 
French, German, English and scientific studies. It is substan- 
tially identical with the course of the same name now found in 
the curriculum of the more progressive colleges of the country. 

The Agricultural Course is designed for those who wish to 
become farmers, teachers or investigators in agricultural science, 
or editors of agricultural papers. In this course, agriculture is 
treated as a branch of technology. For those who wish practical 
rather than scientific training in agriculture, shorter courses are 

The Civil Engineering Course is designed for those who wish 
to become surveyors, railroad, highway, hydraulic, bridge or 
sanitary engineers. 

The Mechanical Engineering Course is designed for those who 
wish to become managers of manufacturing plants, or general 
mechanical engineers. 

The Electrical Engineering Course is designed for those who 
wish to fit themselves for any line of practical work in electricity. 


The Chemical Course is designed for those who wish to become 
professional analysts, teachers of chemistry, or managers of 
industries in which an extensive knowledge of chemistry is 

.The Pharmacy Course is designed for those who wish to pre- 
pare themselves for the practice of pharmacy, and at the same 
time obtain a broad general training. 

The Preparatory Medical Course is designed for those who pro- 
pose to take up the study of medicine after graduation and wish 
to so shape their college work as to furnish the best preparation. 

The Short Courses are as follows : 

The Pharmacy Course, of two years, is designed for those who 
wish to obtain a practical training in pharmacy in the shortest 

The Course in Library Economy, of one year, is designed for 
those who wish instruction in the care and management of libraries. 

The Electrical Engineering Course, of two years, is designed 
for those who wish only a practical training in electrical 

The Agricultural Courses, of one year and of two years, are 
designed for farmers. 

The Training Courses, of six weeks each, in General Agricul- 
ture, in Dairying, and in Horticulture, are planned for farmers. 

The Farm Course is a series of lectures, on agricultural topics, 
not less than five in number, to be delivered at any place in the 
State where a class may be organized under an agreement to 
attend regularly and pay the expenses. 

Degrees. — The scientific, the agricultural, the chemical, 
the preparatory medical and the pharmacy courses lead to the 
degree of Bachelor of Science ; the civil engineering course leads 
to the degree of Bachelor of Civil Engineering; the mechanical 
and electrical engineering courses lead to the degree of Bachelor 
of Mechanical Engineering. Three years after graduation, on 
presentation of a satisfactory thesis and proof of professional 
work or further study, the Bachelors receive the corresponding 
Master's degree. 

Those who complete in a satisfactory manner the course in 
Library Economy, the courses of one and two years in Agricul- 
ture, and the course of two years in Pharmacy receive certificates. 
Three years after graduation, the graduates of the course of two 
years in Pharmacy, on presentation of a satisfactory thesis and 
proof of professional work or further study receive the degree of 
Graduate in Pharmacy. The graduates in the long course may 
receive this degree, if they desire it, one year after graduation 
on proof of professional work or further study. This will not 
prevent them from receiving the degree of Master of Pharmacy, 
three years after graduation. 



The College year is divided into two terms, the fall term of 
sixteen weeks and the spring term of twenty weeks. 

The quota of studies prescribed for each sudent is such as to 
require, for a minimum, seventeen hours, and for a maximum, 
twenty hours of class-room work each week, exclusive of com- 
positions and declamations. The tables are made so as to require 
approximately twenty hours work each week. Laboratory work 
and other exercises not requiring preparation count as half time 
— that is, two hours in the laboratory are counted as equivalent 
to one hour. The hours devoted to such studies are marked 
with a dagger (f.) in the tables. 

A small letter in parenthesis preceding a study indicates that 
it is an elective. The student selects one study from the group 
preceded by the same letter. 

The capital letters and numerals following a study refer to the 
explanatory statements to be found on the pages given. The 
letters refer to the departments of instruction, the numbers to 
the courses under them. 

The Roman numerals and letters in parenthesis following cer- 
tain studies indicate that the studies followed by the same 
Roman numeral fill up a unit of time — a term or a year, as the 
case may be, — one study beginning when another ends, the 
studies following in the order indicated by the letters accom- 
panying the numeral. 














Solid Geometry— Course A l t page 52 

Algebra— Course A 2, page 52 

Trigonometry— Course A 3, page 52 

Rhetoric— Course B I, page 54 

(a) French— Courses B 4 and B 5, page 54 

(a) German— Courses B 8 and B 9, page 55 

Chemistry— Course E 1, page 58 

(t>) Botany— Course 16, page 66 

Free-hand Drawing— Course J 1, page 66 

(b) Mechanical Drawing— Course J 2, page 66 

Mathematical Drawing— Course J 3, page (I b) 66 

Military Science— Course N 1, page 73 , 

Military Science— Course N 2, page (la) 74 , 

Military Science— Course N 2, page (I c) 74 , 




























This course is planned in the belief that the true beginning of 
a liberal education lies in a careful study and a thorough appre- 
ciation of our own language and literature. These, supplemented 
by courses in French and German, by careful training in 
Economics, History, and the elements of International, Constitu- 
tional, and Municipal Law, and by general scientific knowledge 
and attainments, furnish a substantial foundation for a broad 
and general culture. 

This course is designed to prepare the student for those profes- 
sions and callings which demand a broad general knowledge and 
a wider acquaintance with literature and history than is possible 
for those students to acquire whose time is chiefly devoted to 
technical studies. It is believed to be especially adapted to the 
need of those who expect to engage in the teaching of the 
natural, social, or political sciences, or to engage in general busi- 
ness, banking or other large industries in executive or managing 

Upon graduation the student receives the degree of Bachelor 
of Science ; three years later, on proof of satisfactory advance- 
ment and on presentation of a thesis embodying original work 
or investigation, he receives the degree of Master of Science. 




For the Freshman Year see page 30. 




Sophomore Year. 

Analytical Geometry — Course A 4, page 52 (la) 

^Analytical Geometry— Course A 5, page 52 (lb) 

*Calculus — Course A 7, page 53 

*Anglo-Saxon— Course B 2, page 54 

(a) French — Courses B 4 and B 5, jxr^e 54 

(a) German — Courses B 8 aw.d 9, page 55 

General History— Course D 1, p«#e 56 

Organic Chemistry— Course E 4, £>«#e 58 (lb) 

^Laboratory Chemistry— Course E 10, page 59 (lb)... 

Physics— Courses F 1 «WZ F 2, p«#e 60 

Laboratory Physics— Course F 3, j?«#e 60 

Laboratory Physics — Course F 4, ^>a#e 60 , 

^Mechanics — Course F 5, page 61 

Cryptogamic Botany— Course G 1, page 61 

Laboratory Botany — Course G 2, pa^e 62 

^Bacteriology — Course IT 13, page 65 (Ila) 

* Histology— Course I 7, page 66 (lib) 

Military Science— Course N 2, _p«#e 74 (Ilia) 

Military Science— Course N 3, p«#e 74 (HJb) 

Military Science— Course N 2, page 74 (IIIc) , 

Junior Year. 
*Calculus— Course A 8, page 53 

(a) French— Course B 6, page 54 . 

(b) French— Course B 7, page 55 

(a) German — Course B 10, pa#e 55 

(b) German— Course B 11, page 55 

^Spanish — Course B 12, page 55 

^Italian— Course B 13, pa#e 55 

Psychology— Course C 1, page 55 (IVa) 

Logic— Course C 2, pa#e 55 (IV b) 

English Literature— Course C 3, page 56 

General Literature — Course C 4, page 56 

Library Work— Course B 3, pa#e 54, and C 5, _p«#e 56 . . 

English History— Course D 2, 2?a#e 56 

American History — Course T> 3, page 56 

^Laboratory Chemistry — Course E 10, page 59 

*Physics— Course F 6, page 61 

^Mathematical Physics— Course F 8, pa#e 61 

Invertebrate Zoology — Course G 5, £>«#e 62 

Laboratory Zoology— Course G 6, page 62 

^Comparative Vertebrate Zoology— Course G 7, page 
^Laboratory Zoology— Course G 8, page 62 

Military Science — Course N 2, pa^e 74 ( Va) 

Military Science— Course N 3, page 74 (V b) 

Military Science— Course N 2, j>a#e 74 (Vc) 

























* Elective studies from which the student must select enough to give 
him as nearly as possible twenty hours of work per week. 





Kn 11 



Senior Year. 

^Descriptive Astronoray — Course A 9, page 53 , 

^Practical Astronomy — Course A lb, page 53 

Library Work— Courses B 3, page 54, and C 5, page 56 . 

Political Economy — Course D 4, page 57 

Constitution — Course D 6, page 57 

♦International Law— Courses D 5 and D 7, page 57 

Philosophy of History— Course D 8, page 57 

♦History of Philosophy — Course D 9, page 58 

Anthropology— Course D 10, page 58 

♦Photography — Course E 8, j>«#e 59 

♦Mineralogy — Course E 9, page 59 

Advanced Physiology — Course G 3, page 62 

Laboratory Physiology— Course G 4, j?a#e 62 

Geology — Course G 10, page 63 

Military Science — Course N 2, page 74 (Via) 

Military Science— Course N 4, page 74 (VI b) 

Military Science— Course N 2, page 74 (Vic) 











* Elective studies from which the student must select enough to give 
him as nearly as possible twenty hours of work per week. 



The course in chemistry is designed for those who wish to 
become professional chemists and analysts, teachers of chemis- 
try, or chemists and managers of industries in which an exten- 
sive knowledge of chemistry is important. Especial attention is 
given to the preparation of students for the work of the agricul- 
tural experiment stations. The course is so arranged that it 
furnishes an admirable preparation for the study of medicine. 
In addition to a thorough knowledge of chemistry, the student 
acquires, in his biological studies, knowledge of comparative 
anatomy, and of the lower forms of life, and in his work in the 
chemical laboratory, facility in the manipulation of chemical 
apparatus and the microscope. These are of the greatest impor- 
tance to the physician, though the medical student as such can 
devote but comparatively little time to them. 

The lectures and recitations are closely associated with prac- 
tical work in the laboratories where the students, under the 
guidance of the instructors, become acquainted with the methods 
and apparatus of qualitative analysis and of metallurgy. The 
student is drilled in the use of chemical apparatus, accurate obser- 
vation and careful interpretation of directions. 

In order to familiarize the student with chemical publications 
in other languages than English, French text books are used for 
some of the more important studies in the course, and occasional 
translations and readings from the German periodicals are 

Upon graduation the student receives the degree of Bachelor 
of Science ; three years later, on proof of satisfactory advance- 
ment and on presentation of a thesis embodying original work or 
investigation, he receives the degree of Master of Science. 




For Freshman Year see page SO, 



























































































































Sophomore Year. 

Analytical Geometry— Course A 4 page 52, (la) 

French— Courses B 4 and B 5, page 54 , 

German— Courses B 8 and B 9, page 55. . » 

Chemistry— Course E 2, page 58, (lb) 

Laboratory Chemistry— Course E 10, page 59 

Laboratory Chemistry— Course E 10, page 59, (II b).... 

Physics— Courses F 1 and F 2, page 60 

Laboratory Physics — Course F 3, page 60 

Laboratory Physics— Course F 4, page 60, (II a) 

Military Science — Course N 2, page 74, (III a) 

Military Science — Course N 3, page 74, (III b) 

Military Science — Course N 2, page 74, (III c) 

Junior Year. 

German— Course B 10, page 55 

Psychology — Course C 1, page 55, (IV a) . 

Logic— Course C 2, page 55, (IV b) 

English Literature — Course C 3, page 56 

Chemistry— Course E 3, page 58 

Chemistry — Course E 5, page 58 = 

Laboratory Chemistry— Course E 10, page 59 

Volumetric Analysis and Assaying— Course E 10, page 5§, 
(h) Physics— Course F 7, page 61 

(a) Invertebrate Zoology— Course G 5, page 62 

(b) Entomology— Course G 9, page 63. 

(a) Electricity and Magnetism— Course M 1, page 72 

Military Science— Course N 2, pa^re 74, (V a) 

Military Science— Course N 3, p«#e 74, (V b) 

Military Science— Course N 2, page 74, ( V c) 

Senior Year. 

Political Economy— Course D 4, page 57 

Constitution— Course D 6, j;>«#e 57 

Technical Chemical Processes— Course E 6, page 59 

Preparation of Organic Chemicals— Course E 7, »a<7e 

'59, (Via) 

Photography— Course E 8, £>«#e 59 

Mineralogy— Course E 9, page 59 

Laboratory Chemistry— Course E 10, p«#e 59 

Thesis— Course E 11, page 60, (VI b) ■ 

(a) Physics— Course F 7, page 61 

Geology— Course G 10, £>«#(> 63 

(a) H 13, page 65 (VII a) 

(a) Histology— Course I 7, page 66, (VII b) 

Military Science— Course N 2, ^a^e 74, (VIII a) 

Military Science— Course N 4, pa#e 74, (VIII b) 

Military Science— Course N 2, pa^e 74, (VIII c) 



The detailed statement of this course will be published in the 
next catalogue. The technical instruction will not begin till the 
fall teVin of 1895. 

For the first year the Course in Pharmacy will be identical with 
all other courses. The work of the second year will be the same 
as that of the second year of the Course in Chemistry. In the 
third and fourth years will be taken those studi- s which fit the 
graduate to enter upon the business of practical pharmacy. 

This course is one of only three courses of four years offered in 
the United States. Tt will afford unusual drill in the principles 
and practice of chemistry and pharmacy and at the same time 
give a liberal education. This course is in the charge of the pro- 
fessor of chemistry. 

Upon graduation the student receives the degree of Bachelor 
of Science ; one year later, on proof of professional work or 
further study, he may receive the degree of Graduate in Phar- 
macy, if he desire it ; two years later on proof of satisfactory 
advancement and on presentation of a thesis embodying original 
work or investigation, he receives the degree of Master of 


The detailed statement of this course will be published in the 
next catalogue. For the first year it will be identical with all 
other courses. For the second year it will be identical with the 
chemical course. The later years will contain a larger amount 
of botany, bacteriology, and physiology. 

Upon graduation the student receives the degree of Bachelor 
of Science; three years later, on proof of satisfactory advance- 
ment and on presentation of a thesis embodying original work 
or investigation, he receives the degree of Master of Science. 



The course in agriculture is especially designed for those who 
wish to follow some branch of agriculture as a business or who 
propose to. become teachers or investigators along scientific lines 
related to agriculture. It is, however, so broadly educational, 
particularly in the natural sciences and their relations to human 
needs and activities, that it gives an admirable preliminary train- 
ing for either business or professional life. 

The instruction in this course is arranged with reference to 
two general results : first to secure for the student that intellec- 
tual development which is a condition fundamental to the high- 
est success in any calling, and second, to impart such a knowledge 
of the farmer's social and physical environment as will tend to 
give him the largest influence as a man, and the greatest possible 
control of his business. While, therefore, the distinctive studies 
of this course are along technical lines, the branches pertaining 
to general culture, to social and civil relations, occupy an 
important place. 

The sequence of studies in this course is such that the tech- 
nical instruction is based upon a previously acquired knowledge 
of the science; for iustance, general chemistry precedes agri- 
cultural chemistry and botany precedes horticulture. 

The theoretical instruction, especially that of the last two 
years, is given mainly by lectures, but this is associated with 
practical work and observations in the field, laboratories, dairy, 
and forcing houses. Practice is combined with theory whenever 
it is necessary for the demonstration of a principle or involves 
skilled labor, but the student's time is not consumed in merely 
manual operations. Every effort is exerted to make the student 
conversant with the latest phases and discoveries of the rapidly 
broadening sciences, and with the best methods and processes 
in their application to the art of agriculture. 

The special appliances for instruction are : chemical, botanical 
and biological laboratories, finely built and equipped forcing 
houses, a dairy building, gardens, a farm comprising three hun- 


dred and seventy acres of tillage, pasture, wood and timber land r 
well provided with modern farm buildings, tools, machinery, and 
stables stocked with horses, sheep, swine, and cattle. 

The field and other experiments of the Experiment Station are 
also of the greatest value as an aid in converting in the mind of 
the student the theories of the lecture room into the working 
principles of practical life. 

The agricultural lepartments, including Agriculture, Animal 
Industry, Horticulture and Veterinary Science, are under the- 
general supervision of the professor of agriculture. 

Upon graduation the student receives the degree of Bachelor 
of Science ; three years later, on proof of satisfactory advance- 
ment and on presentation of a thesis embodying original work or 
investigation, he receives the degree of Master of Science. 



For^the Freshman Year see page 30. 





Sophomore Year. 

Analytical Geometry — Course A 4, page 52, (I a) 

(a) French— Course B 4 and B 5, page 54 

(a) German— Course B 8 and B 9, page 55 

Organic Chemistry— Course E 4, page 58, (lb) 

Laboratory Chemistry — Course E 10, page 59 

Physics — Course F 1, page 60 

Physics— Course F 1 and F 2, page 60 

Laboratory Physics— Course F 3, J9«#e 60 

Laboratory Physics— Course F 4, page 60, (II a) 

Mechanics— Course F 5, ^«#e 61, (II b) 

Cryptogamic Botany— Course G 1, page 61 

Laboratory Botany— Course G 2, pa#e 62 

Histology— Course I 7, £>«#e 66, (III a) 

Bacteriology— Course H 13, page 65, (III b) 

Military Science— Course N 2, £>«#<? 74, (I a) (IV a) 

Military Science— Course N 3, p«#e 74, (I a) (IV b) 

Military Science—Course N 2, page 74, (I c) (IV c) 

Junior Year. 

German— Course B 10, page 55 

Psychology— Course C 1, page 55, (V a) 

Logic— Course C 2, page 55, (V h) 

English History— Course D 2, page 56 

Laboratory Chemistry— Course E 10, pa^re 59 

Invertebrate Z oology — Course G 5, pa#e 62 

Laboratory Zoology— Course G 6, pa#e 02 

Entomology— Course G 9, page 63 

Agricultural Chemistry,— Courses H 1 and H 2, page 63 

Agricultural Physics— Course H 4, page 64, (VI a) 

Agricultural Engineering— Course H 5, page 64, (VI b) 

Pomology — Course 1 1, page 65, (VII a) 

Olericulture— Course I 2, j9a<7e 65, (VII b) 

Laboratory Horticulture— Course I 5, page 66 

Military Science— Course N 2, page 74, (VIII a) 

Military Science— Course N 3, page 74, (VIII b) 

Military Science— Course N 2, ^>a#e 74, (VIII c) 



































































7 1 







Senior Year. 


















Advanced Physiology — Course G 3, page 62 .... 

Comparative Vertebrate Zoology— Course G 7, page 62. . 

Agricultural Chemistry— Course H 3, page 63 

Dairying— Course H 7, page 64, (IX a) • 

Breeding of Animals— Course H 8, page 64, (IX b) . 

Dairy Practice— Course H 10 page 64 

Plant Variation — Course I 3, page 65, (X a) 

Landscape Gardening — Course I 4, page 65, (X b) 

Laboratory Horticulture— Course I 5, page 66 

Military Science— Course N 4, pa^e 74, (XI b) 



The object of this course is to give the student a thorough 
knowledge of higher mathematics, mechanics and drawing, exper- 
ience in the care and use of the ordinary engineering instruments, 
and a thorough drill in the application of mathematical principles 
and rules, with a view to fitting the student at graduation to apply 
himself at once to engineering work, and to qualify him, after 
experience in the field, to fill positions of importance and trust. 
The course is planned to furnish with technical instruction the 
basis of a liberal education. Especial attention is given to Eng- 
lish, modern languages and economics. 

The method of instruction includes recitations from text-books, 
lectures, original problems, work in the testing laboratories field 
practice, and work in the designing room where original designs 
are figured and the necessary drawings prepared. In the last 
year of the course special effort is made to acquaint the student 
with the best engineering structures and the standard works in 
engineering literature. 

The facilities for instruction are excellent. The engineering 
building which has been recently erected is heated and thoroughly 
ventilated by means of the Sturtevant blower system and con- 
tains recitation rooms, designing rooms, testing laboratories, 
drawing rooms, and instrument rooms as good as any to be 
found in the country. These rooms are all thoroughly equipped. 
Beside the instruments ordinarily used by the professional engi- 
neer, the department has a fine plane table, a solar compass a 
testing machine for iron, a testing machine for cement, and vari- 
ous pieces of apparatus for standard measurements. 

Upon graduation the student receives the degree of Bachelor 
of Civil Engineering; three years later, on proof of satisfactory 
advancement and on presentation of a thesis emboding original 
work or investigation, he receives the degree of Civil Engineer. 




For the Freshman Year see page 30. 





Sophomore Year. 
Analytical Geometry — Courses A 4 and A 5, page 52. 

Descriptive Geometry— Course A 6, page 53 

Calculus— Course A 7, page 53 . 

(a) French — Courses B 6 and B 7, pages 54 «nd 55 

(a) German— Courses B 10 and B 11, page 55 

English History— Course D 2, i?«#e 56 

Physics— Courses F 1 and F 2, ^a^e 58 

Laboratory Physics— Course F 3, page 58 

Laboratory Physics— Course F 4, p«#e 58 (la) 

Drawing — Course K 1, page 66 

Surveying— Course K 2, ^a^e 67 

Field Work in Surveying— Course K 3, page 67 (la) . . 
Field Work in Surveying— Course K 3, page 67 (lb) . 

Military Science — Course N 2, page 74 (II a) 

Military Science— Course N 3, £>a#e 74 (II b) 

Military Science— Course N 2, £>a#e 74 (He) 

Junior Year. 

Calculus— Course A 8, 7.w#e 53 

Psychology— Course C 1 , .p«#e 55 (Ilia) 

Logic— Course C 2, p«#e 5f" (III b) 

Railroad Engineering— Course K 4, page 67 (IVa) 

Railroad, Field and Office Work— Course K 5, page 67. . 

Highway Engineering — Course K 6, p«#e 67 (I V b) 

Mechanics— Course K 1, page 61 (Va) 

Graphics— Course K 8, jja#e 67 ( Vb) 

General Drawing— Course K 9, page 68 (Via) 

(b) General Drawing— Course K 9, page 68 

Stereotomy— Course K 10, page 68 (Vila) 

Sanitary Engineering— Course K 11, page 68 (VII b) . .<• 

Higher Surveying— Course K 12, page 68 ( VI b) 

(b) Laboratory Electricity— Course M 4, page 72 

Military Science— Course N 2, page 74 (Villa) 

Military Science — Course N 3, page 74 ( VI IE b) 

Military Science - Course N 2, ^>«(/e 74 ( VIIIc) 

Senior Year. 

Descriptive A stronomy — Course A 9, page 53 

Practical Astronomy— Course A 10, page 53 

Political Economy— Course D 4, page 57 

Constitutional Law — Course D 6. page 57 

Photography— Course E 8, />a#e 59 

Mineralogy — Course E 9, ^a^e 59 

Geology— Course G 10, page 63 

Mechanics of Materials— Course K 13, p«#e 68 (IX b). 






































Senior Year— Continued. 
Foundations, Masonry Construction and Cements- 












Hydraulics (Field Work)— Course K 15, page 69 (Xa) 

Designing and Thesis Work— Course K 16, page 69 (Xb) 



TmVcourse is designed to give such a training in mathematics, 
mechanics, the principles of mechanism, drawing and manual 
arts as shall make the student competent to deal successfully 
with the problems of mechanical engineering. To give breadth, 
the course includes instruction in the natural sciences, English, 
the modern languages, philosphy and history. The technical 
courses are planned to furnish a sound basis for a professional 
career. These include the geometry of machinery, gearing, with 
problems and practice, transmission of motion and power, bolts, 
cams, couplings and links, the study and designing of valve and 
link motions used in the steam engine, analytical mechanics, 
strength of materials, expansion of steam, construction of steam 
engines, the designing of steam boilers, and hydraulics. The 
methods of instruction include lectures, recitations, practice in 
shop-work, filing, moulding and forging, the solution of numerous 
problems, the tests of theoretical results by comparison with 
modern machinery, inspection of important plants, etc. 

The department shares the engineering building with the 
department of civil engineering. The machinery building is 
equipped with iron working and w T ood working machinery of the 
most approved form. 

Upon graduation the student receives the degree of Bachelor 
of Mechanical Engineering ; three years later, on proof of satis- 
factory advancement and on presentation of a thesis embodying 
original work or investigation, he receives the degree of 
Mechanical Engineer. 




For Freshman Year see page 30. 





Sophomore Year. 
Analytical Geometry — Courses A 4 and A 5, page 52. 

Descriptive Geometry — Course A 6, page 53 

Calculus— Course A 7, page 53 

(a) French— Courses B 6 and B 7, pages 54 and 55 

(a) German— ' ourses B 10 and B 11, page 55 

English History— Course D 2, pa#e 56 

Physics— Courses F 1 and F 2, _p«#e 60 

Laboratory Physics— Course F 3", page 60 

Laboratory Physics — Course F 4, pa^e 60, (la) 

Carpentry— Course L 2, p«^e 70 

Forge Work — Course L 3, page 70 

Machine Work — Course L 7, jp^e 71, (lb) 

Military Science — Course N 2, p«#e 74, (II a) 

Military Science— bourse N 3, jM#e 74, (II h) 

Military Science— Course N 2, page 74, (He) 

Junior Year. 

Calculus— Course A 8, page 53 

Machine Design— Course L 1, £>«#e 69 < . 

Mechanics— Course L 4, pa^e 70 

Kinematics— Course L 5, pc^e 70 

Machine Work— Course L 7, page 71 

(b) Machine Work— Course L 7, i?a#e 71 

Steam Boilers — Course L 10, page 71 

Electricity and Magnetism — * ourse M 1, ^a^re 72 

(b) Laboratory Electricity— Courses M 3 and M 4, page 72, 

Military Science— ( ourse N 2, ^>«#e 74, (III a) 

Military Science— Course N 3, page 74, (III b) 

Military Science— Course N 2, page 74, (III c) 

Senior Year. 

Psychology— Course C 1, page 55, (IV a) 

Logic— Course C 2, page 55, (I V b) 

Political Economy — < ourse D 4, page 57 

Constitution— Course D 6, pfl^e 57. . . 

Geology— Course G 10, page 63 

Link and Valve Motions— Course L 6, page 70 

Steam Engine— Course L 8, £>«#e 71, (Va) 

Hydro-Mechanics— Course L 9, page 71 

Testing— Course L 11, page 11, (Vb) 

Steam Engine Designing— Course L 12, ^?«#e 72 

Steam Boiler Designing— Course L 13, page 72 

Thesis Work— Course L 14, pr^e 72 

Military Science— Course N 2, page 74, (VI a) . . 
Military Science— Course N 4, page 74, (VI b). 
Military Science— Course N 2, pr^e 74, (VI c). 











1 - 





















The Course in Electrical Engineering is identical with the 
Course in Mechanical Engineering for the first two years. Dur- 
ing the last two years the student devotes his time about equally 
to the two lines of work. He is thus able to get a fair knowl- 
edge of steam engineering, boiler management, mechanics and 
kindred subjects, and at the same time to become familiar with 
the various branches of electrical engineering. This work consists 
of lectures, text-book and laboratory work. The subjects con- 
sidered cover the problems which confront an electrician in prac- 
tical life. This course is in the charge of the professor of 

At present the department occupies three rooms, in addition 
to those belonging to the department of physics. These rooms are 
the laboratory, fitted with solid tables, where the general work in 
measurement and testing is done; the dynamo room, contain- 
ing a dynamo and switch board; and a room for use as a 
private laboratory for work with the more delicate instruments. 
It is expected that immediate provision will be made for 
increasing the efficiency of the work in this department, by the 
purchase of additional instruments. When the equipment is 
completed, it is believed that the course will furnish an admir- 
able preparation for work in designing, constructing and man- 
aging the various instruments and machines which are to be 
found in an electric plant. 

Upon graduation the student receives the degree of Bachelor 
of Mechanical Engineering ; three years later, on proof of satis- 
factory advancement and on presentation of a thesis embodying 
original work or investigation, he receives the degree of Mechani- 
cal Engineer or Electrical Engineer, as his professional work 
may make proper. 




For the Freshman Year see page 30. 




Sophomore Year. 

Analytical Geometry— Courses A 4, and A 5, page 52 

Descriptive Geometry — Course A 6, page 53 , 

Calculus— Course A 7, page 53 

(a) French— Courses B 6 and B 7, pages 54 and 55 

(a) German— Courses B 10 and B 11, page bo. 

English History— Course D 2, 2?a#e 56 

Physics — Courses F 1 and F 2, pa^re 60 

Laboratory Physics— Course F 3, page 60 

Laboratory Physics— Course F 4, pagre 60 

Carpentry — Course L 2, p«(/e 70 

Forge Work — Course L 3, page 70 

Military Science— Course N 2, ^a^e 74, (la) 

Military Science— Course N 3, page 74, (lb) 

Military Science — Course N 2, page 74, (I c) 

Junior Year. 

Calculus— Course A 8, page 53 

Machine Design— Course L 1, page 69 

Mechanics — Course L 4, page 70 

Kinematics — Course L 5, pa^e 70 

Machine Work— Course L 7, page 71 .. 

Steam Boilers— Course L 10, 2J«#e 71 

Electricity and Magnetism— Course M 1, page 72 

Electricity and Magnetism— Course M 2, p«#e 72 

Laboratory Electricity— Courses M 3 and M 4, page 72.. 

Military Science— Course N 2, ^«^e 74, (II a) 

Military Science— Course N 3, page 74, (lib) 

Military Science— Course N 2, i?a#e 74, (II c) 

Senior Year. 

Psychology— Course C 1, page 55, (III a) 

Logic — Course C 2, page 55, (III b) 

Political Economy— Course D 4, £>«r/e 57 

Con stitution — Course D 6, page 57 

Geology— Course G 10, page 63 

Link and V alve— Course L 6, pa</e 70 

Steam Engine— Course L 8, page 71 

Electrical Machinery— Course M 5, page 72 

Electrical Engineering— Course M 6, p«#e 73 

Electrical Design- Courses M 7 and M 8, page 73 

Laboratory Electricity— Course M 9, page 73 

Laboratory Electricity and Thesis Work— Course M 10 

page 73 

Theoretical Electricity— Course M 11, page 73 

Military Science— Course N 2, £>«#e 74, (IV a) 

Military Science— Course N 4, jortV/e 74, (IV b) 

Military Science— Course N 2, £>«</e 74, (IV c) 



































This course is designed for those who wish to obtain a practical 
training in pharmacy, in the shortest time. The year is thirty- 
six weeks in length and the student is expected to give his entire 
time to his college work. The work will be like that of the third 
and fourth years of the long course except that the most advanced 
technical work and the studies introduced for the sake of culture 
will be replaced by elementary scientific studies. Persons desir- 
ing to enter this course should have a good English education, 
such as can be gained in a good public grammar school. Formal 
entrance examinations are not required, but each candidate must 
satisfy the professor in charge that he is fitted to pursue the 
course with profit. 

The annual expenses are the same as those of students in the 
long course as stated in the article on expenses. No charge is 
made for tuition or rooms. The work in pharmacy is in the 
charge of the professor of chemistry. 

Students who complete this course in a satisfactory manner 
receive a certificate. Three years later, on presentation of a sat- 
isfactory thesis and proof of professional work, or further study, 
they receive the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy. 

A special circular, in regard to this course, will be issued in 
May, 1895. Those who wish it should apply to the President of 
the College. 


This course is designed to give training for the profession of 
the librarian, and to furnish to persons fond of books opportunity 
to become familiar with them and their history. It is not a part 
of any of the other courses, but is expected to occupy the time 
of the student for one year. The student may, however, obtain 
the consent of the faculty to attend other courses of instruction 
in the college. The course is thoroughly practical, and it is 
expected that those who complete it will be fitted to take charge 
of small libraries, or departments in larger libraries. 


Candidates for admission should have a high school training, 
in which it will be well to give especial attention to the languages. 
Those coming from approved schools will be admitted on certifi- 
cate. Others will be examined on literature, history, and miscel- 
laneous information such as should be acquired from general 

The general expenses are the same as those of students in the 
long courses, as stated in the article on expenses. No charge 
is made for tuition or rooms, but each student pays for materials 
used. This charge should not exceed $5.00 per annum. 

Students who complete this course in a satisfactory manner 
receive a certificate. 

The following outline of studies may be varied, with the per- 
mission of the faculty, to suit individual cases. 

One hour a day through the year is devoted to recitation in 
literature. English and American literature are taken up in the 
fall term and modern European literature in the spring term. 
Two hours on alternate afternoons are devoted to supplementary 
reading in the library. The study of classification occupies the 
other afternoons of the year except for a part of the spring 
term which is given to bibliography. Three hours each day are 
devoted to cataloguing and general library economy, including 
accessioning, shelf-listing, charging of books, assigning of book 
numbers, etc. The exact portion of time to be devoted to 
each subject is arranged to fit the needs of the individual student. 


This course is designed for those students who wish to 
obtain only a practical training in electrical engineering. It 
omits most of the subjects of a general and theoretical nature 
which appear in the four years course. 

To enter upon this course the student must give evidence of 
sufficient knowledge of mathematics to carry on the mathematical 
studies pursued by the freshman class. Preparation in English 
studies is highly desirable. The annual expenses are the same 
as those for other courses, for which see the article on expenses. 

By permission of the Faculty changes may be made in the out- 
line, by which the student may devote a certain amount of time 
to modern languages, English, laboratory work in physics, chem- 
istry and natural history, or to other subjects. 

Upon completing, in a satisfactory manner, the course here out- 
lined, a certificate will be given to the student indicating the 
amount and character of the work performed. 







First Year. 

Geometry — Course A 1, page 52 

Algebra— Course A 2, page 52 

Trigonometry— Course A 3, page 52 

Chemistry— Course E 1, page 58 

Physics— Course F 1, page 60 

Physics— Course F 2, page 60 

Drawing— Course J 1, page 6Q 

Mathematical Drawing— Course J 3, page 66, (I b) 

Shop Work— Course L 2, jm#e 70 

Kinematics — Course L 5, page 70 

Electricity and Magnetism— Course M 1, page 72. 

Laboratory Electricity— Course M 3, page 72 

Laboratory Electricity— Course M 4, £><r«/e 72 

Military Science— Course N 1. £>a#e 73 

Military Science— Course N 2, pa#e 74, (I a) 

Military Science— Course N 2, p«'#e 74, (I c) 

Second Year. 

Link and Valve— Course L 6, ^a^e 70 

Steam Engine— Course L 8, page 71 

Hydro-Mechanics— Course L 9, p##e 71 

Steam Boilers — Course L 10 : page 71 

Electrical Machinery— Course M 5, page 72 

Electrical Engineering— Course M 6, pa#e 73 

Electrical Design— Course M 7, _p"#e 73 

Electrical Design— Course M 8, £>«#e 73 

Laboratory Electricity— Course M 9, page 73 

Laboratory Electricity— Course M 10, page 73 

Military Science— Course N" 2, pc^e 74, (I a) 

Military Science— Course N 3, p^e 74, (lb) 

Military Science— Course IS 2, pr^e 74, (Ic) 


























The short courses in agriculture are designed for those who 
wish to become farmers and can devote but limited time to study. 
They are intended to give the greatest amount of available and 
directly useful knowledge that can be acquired in the time 
allowed. To adapt them to the varying conditions of prepara- 
tion and of time that can be given, two courses are offered, one 
extending through two college years, the other through one year. 
The former affords a wider range of study and practice, but the 
latter in its narrower range offers a plan of systematic study on 
prominent and important agricultural subjects. Students must 
come to these courses with at least a good common school educa- 
tion, and be not less than fifteen years of age. No maximum 
limit of age is fixed. Formal entrance examinations are not 
required, but the College reserves the right to reject any student 
who shows a lack of fitness to pursue with success the course 

The annual expenses are the same as those of students in the 
four years courses, as stated in the article on expenses. No 
charge is made for tuition or rooms. 

These courses, including the work in agriculture, horticulture, 
animal industry and veterinary science, are in the general charge 
of the professor of agriculture. 

Students who complete these courses in a satisfactory manner, 
receive certificates. 


No short courses have been arranged in other departments^than 
those mentioned above, but special students are received in any 
department upon satisfying the professor in charge that they are 
fitted to pursue a special course with profit. The studies must 
usually be selected from those announced in the catalogue. If 
more students desire to take any study than can be accommodated, 
preference will be given to those in the regular and longer 

The expenses will be the same as those of students in the full 
courses. No charge will be made for tuition or rooms. 




President Harris; Professor Hart*; Professor Hersey; 

Mr. Cowan. 

A 1. Solid Geometry.— Books 6, 7, 8, of Wentworth's Solid 
Geometry, except the theorems relating to symmetrical figures 
and regular polyhedrons, and including applications to the men- 
suration of solids and original demonstrations. 

Five hours a week Jor eight weeks. Mr. Cowan. 

A 2. Algebra. — Theory of quadratic equations; binomial 
theorem with fractional and negative exponents; variations; 
inequalities; logarithms, including the solution of arithmetical 
problems and application to problems in compound interest and 
insurance ; exponential and logarithmic series and computation 
of logarithms; indeterminate coefficients; partial fractions. 

The text-book is Wells' College Algebra. Five hours a week 
for sixteen weeks. Prof. Hersey. 

A3. Trigonometry. — Plane trigonometry. Proof of formu- 
las and solutions of right and oblique triangles both by numerical 
values of the functions and by logarithms. Spherical trigonom- 
etry. Proof of formulas, and logarithmic solution of right and 
oblique triangles. 

The text-book is Wentworth's Trigonometry. Five hours a 
iveek for twelve weeks. Prof. Hersey. 

A 4. Analytical Geometry. — An elementary course, includ- 
ing the study of the point, right line, circle, ellipse, parabola and 
hyperbola referred to rectangular axes. 

The text-book is Nichols' Analytic Geometry. Five hours a 
week for eight weeks. President Harris. 

A 5. Analytical Geometry. — An advanced course. 
The text-book is Nichols' Analytic Geometry. Five hours a 
vjeekfor eight weeks. President Harris. 

*0n leave. 


A 6. Descriptive Geometry. — The time of this course is 
divided equally between the recitation room and the drawing- 
room. The work in the drawing-room consists of thirty-six inde- 
pendent problems, of which sixteen are elementary, twelve are 
tangent problems, and eight are problems in working out the 
curves of intersection of planes, cylinders, cones, spheres, etc. 

The text-book is Church's Descriptive Geometry. Five exer- 
cises {counting as four hours) a fortnight for twenty weeks. Mr. 

A 7. Calculus. — Differentiation of algebraic, trigonometric, 
anti-trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions; 
formulas derived by method of limits ; successive differentiation ; 
development of functions; indeterminate forms. 

The text-book is Osborne's Integral and Differential Calculus. 
Five hours a fortnight for twenty weeks. President Harris. 

A 8. Calculus. — The application of differention to the study 
of plane curves ; maxima and minima. Integration by funda- 
mental formulae; integration of rational fractions; integration 
by rationalization ; integration regarded as a summation ; inte- 
gration by parts ; reduction formulae ; applications to finding the 
length of curves, areas of plane surfaces and surfaces of revolu- 
tion, volumes of solids, center of gravity, moment of inertia and 
to problems in mechanics. 

The text-book is Osborne's Differential and Integral Calculus. 
Five hours a week for sixteen iveeks. President Harris. 

A 9. Descriptive Astronomy. — The text-book is supple- 
mented by informal lectures, an elaborate set of drawings of 
celestial objects, lantern slides, and telescopic work, for which a 
4-inch Clark equatorial telescope is available. 

The text-book is Young's Elements of Astronomy. Five hours 
a fortnight for twenty weeks. Prof. Hart. 

A 10. Practical Astronomy.— A course embracing the 
theory and use of the sextant and artificial horizon, the theodo- 
lite, chronometer, and the altitude and azimuth instrument; 
solution of various problems relating to the astronomical tri- 
angle ; conversion of time ; latitude by a meridian altitude, by an 
alt tude at any time, by circum-meridian altitudes ; time by star 
transits, and by equal altitudes of a star or the sun; longitude 
by a single altitude, by moon culminations, by telegraph; 
azimuth by a circum-polar star at elongation, by an altitude of 
a star or the sun. Other topics treated vary from year to year. 
The instrumental equipment consists of two sextants and arti- 
ficial horizons, a theodolite by Buff & Berger, made with refer- 
ence to astronomical work, a sidereal and a mean time chrono- 
meter, and a vertical circle with 1.8-inch objective, made by A. 
Kepsold & Son. 

t Three hours a fortnight for twenty weeks. Prof. Hart. 



Proeessor Estabrooke. 

B 1. Rhetoric. — The classification of sentences— rhetorical, 
grammatical ; analysis of the sentence with reference to punctn- 
ation; exercises in punctuation ; diction, with special reference 
to purity, propriety, and precision of language; clearness, 
strength, and unity of sentences ; extended study of the para- 
graph; themes — including the narrowing of the subject from 
general to particulars ; construction of outline, etc. 

The text-book is Mead's Rhetoric. Five hours a fortnight for 
thirty-six weeks, 

B 2. Anglo-Saxon. — Elements of Anglo-Saxon grammar; 
reading of easy prose, such as the Gospel of St. John, selections 
from Aelfric's Homilies, the Voyages of Wulfstan and Othere, 
selections from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Constant reference 
is made to the relation of Anglo-Saxon to modern English. 

The text-books are Cook's Grammar and Corson's Handbook 
of Anglo-Saxon and Early English. Five hours a fortnight for 
twenty weehs. 

B. 3. Library Work. — Work in the history of the origin and 
development of the English language. Lounsbury's History of 
the English Language will be taken as the nucleus of that work, 
and while reading this the student will also read, in whole or in 
part, Marsh's Lectures on the English Language, Whitney's 
Life and Growth of Language, Farrar's Language and Lang- 
uages, Earl's Philology of the English Tongue, Matthews' Words, 
their Use and Abuse, Wheeler's Byeways of Literature, the 
works of Muller, White, Latham, and others. 

Ten hours a fortnight during the fall term and four hours a week 
during the spring term of the junior year ; and ten hours a fortnight 
during the senior year. 

B 4. French. — Elements of French grammar and reading of 
selections from easy prose. 

The text-books are Edgren's French Grammar and Super's 
Reader. Five hours a week for sixteen weeks. 

B 5. French. — Reading of easy prose and verse, w T ith con- 
stant reference to grammatical construction. 

The text-books are Moliere's L'Avare and Histoire de la Mere 
Michel et de Son Chat. Five hours a week for twenty weeks. 

B 6. French. — Reading of more difficult prose such as is 
found in the popular novels and plays ; reading of French history. 

The text-books are Mademoiselle de la Seigliere, Vie de Napo- 
leon, Tableaux de la Revolution Francaise, Super's Readings 
from French History, Les Trois Mousquetaires. Five hours a 
fortnight for sixteen weeks. 


B 7. French.— A continuation of course 6. 
Five hours a fortnight for twenty weeks. 

B 8. German. — Elements of German grammar and reading of 
selections of easy prose and verse. 

The text-books are Harris's German Lessons and Van Daell's 
Reader. Five hours a week for sixteen weeks. 

B 9. German. — This course is a continuation of course 7. 

The text-books are Van Daell's Reader, Meissner's German 
Grammar, and Storm's Immensee, Der Neffe als Onkel. Five 
hours a week for twenty weeks. 

B. 10. Advanced German.— Reading of moderately difficult 
poetry. The text-book is Schiller's Ballads. 
Five hours a fortnight for sixteen weeks. 

B. 11. Advanced German.— The text-books are Wilhelm Tell 
and Gore's Science Reader. 

Five hours a fortnight for twenty weeks. 

B. 12. Spanish. — The object of this course is the acquisition of 
the ability to read easy Spanish with facility. A brief study in 
Spanish literature is included. Students must have pursued pre- 
viously the full courses in French. This course alternates with 
Italian beginning in 1896. 

The text-books are : Ollendorff's Method and Don Quixote. 

Five hours a fortnight for twenty weeks. Prof. Rogers. 

B. VS. Italian. — The object of this course is the aquisitionof 
the ability to read easy Italian with facility. A brief study of 
Italian literature is included. Students must have pursued pre- 
viously the courses in French. This course alternates with Span- 
ish beginning in 1897. 

The text-books are Grandgent's Italian Grammar and Pellico's 
u Le Mie Pregione." 

Five hours a fortnight for twenty weeks. Prof. Rogers. 


Professor Rogers. 
C 1. Psychology.— Psychology is taken up as a preliminary 
to logic. In the brief time allotted to this subject only its out- 
lines can be considered. 

Five hours a week for ten weeks. 

C 2. Logic— The object of this course, is to give the student 
a just appreciation of the functions of language as a means of 
expressing thought, and familiarity with the principles of 
deductive and inductive reasoning. The student is given fre- 
quent drill in the application of logical principles with the idea 


that not only should these principles be comprehended but that 
they should be so digested and assimilated as to make them a 
part of his intellectual fibre. 

The instruction is given mainly by lectures. Five hours a week 
for ten weeks. 

C 3. English Literature. — Arnold's Manual of English 
Literature serves as a guide for the work done, which consists 
of a careful study of some of the masterpieces of our language 
and of the historical and other conditions under which they 
were produced. The library is used in connection with these 
lectures and recitations as the laboratory is used in the study of 
the experimental sciences. 

Five hours a iveek for sixteen weeks. 

C 4. Literature of Modern Europe. — This course is 
designed to give an outline of the best literature of the principal 
European nations, since the "revival of learning." The prom- 
inent authors of each nation are studied, being taken up chron- 
ologically instead of by nationalities, so as to bring out the 
mutual relations of the different literatures. The class-room 
work is supplemented by work in the library. No text-book is 

Five hours a week for twenty weeks. Miss Fernald. 

C 5. Library Work.— The aim of this course is to familiarize 
the student with not only general literature but also the litera- 
ture of history and economics and to make critical and independent 
investigation of questions arising in connection with these sub- 
jects. This work is tested from time to time, and the student is 
held strictly responsible for it. 

Ten hours a fortnight during the fall term and four hours a week 
during the spring term of the junior year ; and ten hours a fortnight 
during the senior year. 

Professor Eogers. 

D 1. General History. — The text-book is Myer's General 
History. One hour a vjeek for sixteen weeks and three hours a week 
for twenty weeks. 

D 2. English History.— The text-book is Green's Shorter 
History of the English People. Five hour a fortnight for sixteen 

D 3. American History.— Lectures, supplemented by topi- 
cal investigation and study. Two hours a week for twenty weeks. 


D 4. Political Economy. — Instruction is given by Lectures. 
Topical readings and investigation are required. Recognizing 
that the basis of economics is in the advancing civilization and 
changing conditions of the people, that its objective point is not 
ultimate principles, but the most advantageous adaptation of 
present means to these conditions, the aim of the instruction 
given is not to supply the student with references ready made, 
but to teach him to think for himself. With the habit of logical 
and systematic thought upon these subjects once acquired, the 
best sources for information upon economic matters are not the 
text-books of ten, fifteen, or fifty years ago, but the daily news- 
paper; for it is in comprehending the questions of public policy 
of the present day that the study of political economy does its 
work in making men better fitted for the responsible duties of 

Five hours a week for twenty weeks. 

T> 5. Municipal Law. — Lectures, setting forth the general 
principles of law. Among the topics discussed are the general 
principles of contracts, sales, notes and bills, conveyancing, 
agency, bailments, and insurance. These subjects are considered 
very briefly and generally; but it is believed that the instruction 
given, in addition to its educational value, will be useful in pre- 
venting vexatious and expensive litigation. 

One hour a week for thirty-four weeks. 

D 6. Constitutional Law and History.— Instruction is 
given mainly by lectures on which the student is required to 
make copious notes and to take w r eekly examinations. The course 
includes an outline of Anglo-Saxon institutions, the development 
of the English Constitution uutil modern times, the growth and 
political conditions of the American colonies prior to their inde- 
pendence, the Articles of Confederation, the causes leading to 
the adoption of the Constitution ; the comparative study of the 
Federal and the State Constitutions, clause by clause, from his- 
torical and legal standpoints. The political history of the United 
States is discussed as fully as time permits. Many of the princi- 
ples of international law are discussed in connection with this 

Five hoiws a iceek for sixteen weeks. 

D 7. International Law.— A complete course. 
The text-book is VVolsey's International Law. Four hours a 
week for twenty iceeks. 

D 8. The Philosophy of History.— The literature, learn- 
ing, political and economic conditions of the great historic 
nations are discussed, and the growth of the institutions care- 


fully considered. Fisher's Outlines of General History serves as 
a basis for the work done, and is supplemented by lectures and 
topical studies. 

Five hours a fortnight for sixteen loeeks. 

D 9. History of Philosophy .— Schwegler's History of Phil- 
osophy is used as a text-book. 

Five hours a fortnight for sixteen weeks, 

D 10. Anthropology. — This course is limited to the study 
of primitive institutions and customs, but it is hoped that it may 
be more fully developed, and the opportunities for research af- • 
forded by the relics of the aboriginal races of this section of 
the country may be utilized. 

The text book is Lubbock's Origin of Civilization and Primi- 
tive Condition of Man. 

Tivo hours a iveek for twenty weeks. 


Professor Aubert ; Mr. Colby. 
E 1. General Chemistry. Recitations and lectures in the 
general principles of chemistry, illustrated by charts, experi- 
ments, etc. This course is designed to give the student a 
general survey of the theories of chemistry, preparation and 
properties of the most important elements and their compounds, 
and of some of the important chemical industries. It serves as 
a basis for the other courses. The text-book is Fischer's Lessons 
in Elementary Chemistry. Five hours a fortnight for thirty-six 
weeks. Prof. Aubert. 

E 2. Chemical Theory and Advanced Inorganic Chemis- 
try. The text books are Walker and Dobson's Chemical Theory 
and Serres Principes de Chemie, Vols. 1 and 2. Five hours a 
week for eight weeks^ and five hours a fortnight for twenty weeks, 
Mr. Colby. 

E 3. Organic Chemistry. Lectures and recitations, illus- 
trated by specimens from the collection of organic chemicals ; 
and supplemented by a course in the preparation of organic 
compounds. The text book is Serres Principes de Chemie Vol. 
3. Five hours a fortnight for thirty-six weeks. Prof. Aubert. 

E 4. Organic Chemistry. A short course setting forth the 
properties of organic compounds, the general methods of pre- 
paring them, and special methods for preparing some of the 
most important. 

Five hours a week for eight weeks. Prof. Aubkrt. 

E 5. Chemical Reading. — Study and translations of foreign 
works, reading of the chemical journals, etc. 

One hour a week for sixteen weeks. Prof. Aubert. 


E 6. Technical Processes.— These processes Include labor- 
atory methods as well as processes used in the arts. Lectures 
and notes. 

Five hours a fortnight for sixteen weeks. Prop. Atjbert and 
Mr. Colby. 

E 7. The Preparation of Organic Chemicals.— This 
course is designed to make the student familiar with the more 
common forms of apparatus and processes used in the prepara- 
tion and synthesis of organic substances. 

Cohen's Practical Organic Chemistry is used for reference. 

Eleven hours a fortnight for four 'weeks. Prof. Albert. 

E 8. Photography and Photographic Chemistry.— Lec- 
tures and practical work in the field and photographic laboratory. 
•fTwo hours a week for sixteen weeks. Mr. Colby. 

E 9. Mineralogy. — A course in determinative mineralogj^ 
and blow pipe analysis, designed to make the student familiar 
with the more common minerals by the use of the working col- 
lection, and to teach him to determine unknown minerals by the 
blow pipe. 

The text books are Dana's Manual of Mineralogy and Petro- 
ography and Crosby's Tables for Determination of Minerals. 

Three hours a fortnight for sixteen weeks. Mr. Colby. 

E 10. Analytical Chemistry".— Qualitative Analysis. — The 
qualitative determination and separation of the acids and bases, 
which is supplemented by occasional lectures, the writing out of 
the reactions involved, and other exercises. 

Quantitative Analysis. —Gravimetric determinations of Fe in 
iron wire — Mg in magnesium wire — A1 2 3 and S0 3 in alum — CaO 
in calcic carbonate — CI in salt — Cu in copper sulfate— As in 
arsenious oxyd — Hg in mercuric chlorid — Pb and Sn in solder — 
Pb, Cu and Zn in brass— Si0 2 , A1 2 3 , Fe 2 3 , CaO, MgO and C0 2 in 
dolomite — complete analysis of feldspar, water analysis &c. This 
course is extended in some cases and for students in agricul- 
ture, pharmacy, and preparatory medicine some of the deter- 
minations are replaced by others of greater usefulness to 
these students. 

Agricultural Analysis.— The analysis of fodders, fertilizers, 
milk, butter and other agricultural products. The methods used 
are those recommended by the Association of Official Agricul- 
tural Chemists. This course is particularly designed for agri- 
cultural and chemical students. 

Volumetric Analysis and Assaying.— Determinations in aci- 
dimetry, alkalimetry, oxyclimetry, etc. Special attention is paid 
to processes used in technical work. A short course in the 
assay of gold and silver ores is given. The complete course is 


taken by chemical students. A partial course in volumetric 
analysis is taken by agricultural and pharmaceutical students. 

Toxicology and Biological Analysis.— Determinations of the 
commoner poisons will be given to preparatory medical, 
pharmaceutical, and some chemical students. 

A short course in biological analysis may be given to prepara- 
tory medical and pharmaceutical students. This course includes 
urine analysis and that of other animal secretions and products, 
normal and pathological. 

Text-books are : Craft's Qualitative Analysis, Appleton's 
Quantitative Analysis, Medicus Einleitung in die Analyse, 
Fleisher's Volumetric Analysis, Clark's Assay ISTotes, Ricketts' 
Assay Notes. 

The time devoted to analytical chemistry varies. It is stated in the 
tables. Prof. Albert and Mr. Colby. 

E 11. Thesis Work. — Each student is required, as a condi- 
tion of graduation, to prepare a thesis on some chemical subject 
embod}dng the results of original work in analysis or research. 


Professor Stevens. 

F 1. Mechanics, Hydraulics, Pneumatics. — Recitations 
and problems ; experiments before the class and lectures on 
modern physical theories, and subjects not discussed in the text- 

The text-book is Sheldon's revision of Olmsted's College Phil- 
osophy. Three hours a week for sixteen weeks. 

F 2. Sound, Heat, Light, Electricity. — A continuation of 
course 1, treated in a similar manner. 
Four hours a week for twenty weeks. 

F 3. Laboratory Work — Introductory measurements, in- 
cluding the theory and use of such instruments as the vernier, 
spherometer, kathetometer, and the hook-gauge ; the determina- 
tion of the co-efficient of friction, the breaking strength of wires, 
the deflection of beams, the laws of the common and torsion 
pendulum, and the specific gravity of solids and liquids. 

Four hours a week for sixteen weeks. 

F *4. Laboratory Work. — Such problems as the determina- 
tion of the pitch of a tuning-fork, of specific heat, the use of 
meteorological instruments, photometry, spectroscopy, measure- 
ments of the angle of a prism by Babinet's and Wollaston's 
goniometers, microscopic measurements and drawings with the 
camera lucida, various elementary electrical measurements. 

Four hours a week for ten week. 


F 5. Mechanics. This cause is designed to give students 
in the agricultural course, more extended work in mechanics 
than that offered in course 1. The text-book is Peck's 
Mechanics. Two hours a week for ten weeks. 

F 6. Advanced Optics. This course continues the work 
in optics done in course 2. It is partly lectures and partly 
laboratory work. The lectures are based upon such works as 
Glazebrook, Heath and Lommel. The laboratory work is chiefly 
the determination of indices of refraction and wave-lengths of 

Five hours a fortnight for sixteen weeks. 

F 7. Advanced Acoustics. This is similar to course 6, 
except that acoustics is made the principal subject. Stone's 
text-book is used. The work of this course is likely to change 
from year to year. Five hours a fortnight for twenty weeks. 

F 8. Mathematical Physics. One course in mathematical 
physics is offered each year. This year it is Merriman's Least 

Five hours a fortnight for sixteen weeks. 


Professor Harvey. 

G 1. Cryptogamic Botany.— A detailed study of about thirty 
type forms of the prominent groups of non-flowering plants. 
Their life histories are traced in detail by the aid of the compound 
microscope, and accurate drawings are made. Special attention 
is given to useful and injurious forms. Such injurious species as 
blue molds, black molds, fish molds, mildews, wheat smut, corn 
smut, ergot, potato rot, black knot, are especially studied, and 
remedies considered. Fungicides and spraying apparatus receive 
attention. Students are required to collect specimens and pre- 
pare them for the herbarium. 

Text-books are Bessey's Botany, Martin and Huxley's Biology, 
Arthur, Barnes and Coulter's Plant Dissection, Campbell's Struc- 
tural and Systematic Botany, Sedgwick and Wilson's General 
Biology, Bentley's Botany, Spaulding's Introduction to Botany, 
Dodge's Practical Biology, Bennet and Murray's Cryptogamic 
Botany. Books of reference, special articles and monographs 
are in constant use. The facilities are a convenient laboratory, a 
herbarium of five thousand species, a set of Brendel models, 
charts, and a rich local cryptogamic flora. 

Five hours a fortnight for sixteen weeks. 


G 2. Laboratory Botany.— Instruction in the use of the 
microscope, micrometers, camera lucida, microtome ; the prepara- 
tion of slides; the study of the life history, analysis, description, 
classification, illustration of cryptogams, and their preparation 
for the herbarium. 

Two hours a week for sixteen weeks or four hours a week for ten 

G 3. Advanced Physiology.— Lectures on the anatomy, 
physiology, hygiene and pathology of the human body. The 
work is illustrated by the use of a skeleton, manikin, models of 
the human larynx, ear, eye and brain, charts, microscopic slides, 
fresh, dried and alcoholic material. 

Five hours a fortnight for twenty weeks. 

G 4. Laboratory Physiology. — Examination of skeleton, 
manikin, charts, models, microscopic slides and- the dissection of 
lower animals. 

Two hours a week for twenty iveeks. 

G 5. General Invertebrate Zoology. — A detailed study 
of type forms of all the branches of invertebrates. 

Packard's Zoology is used as a guide. Martin and Huxley's, 
Brooks', Colton's, Bumpus', Dodge's and Osborne's laboratory 
manuals when applicable are followed in laboratory practice. The 
student makes daily use of the compound microscope in examining 
minute forms and tissues, makes dissections and careful draw- 
ings, and classifies the forms studied. Fresh, dried and alcoholic 
materials, charts, models, and the working library of reference 
books are in constant use. The recitations are usually conducted 
in the laboratory and pertain to the type forms under considera- 
tion. Five hours a fortnight for sixteen iveeks. 

G 6. Laboratory Zoology* — This course is a continuation 
of course 5. 
Five hours a week for sixteen iveeks. Prof. Harvey. 

G 7. Comparative Vertebrate Zoology.— A comparative 
study of type forms of vertebrate animals. The methods and 
facilities for work are the same as in course 5. The department 
is provided with a set of Auzoux's Models and a good working 
collection of type forms. Special attention is given to the zoolo- 
gy of the domestic animals. 

Packard's Zoology is used as a guide. Laboratory manuals 
and monographs are used in addition. Seven hours a fortnight for 
sixteen weeks. Prof. Harvey. 

G 8. Laboratory Zoology. — Museum w T ork ; study of charts, 
and models, and of the life history of special forms ; dissections 
of a fish, frog, turtle, bird, and rat ; methods of preparing speci- 
mens for collections. 

Four hours a week for twenty weeks. 


G 9. Entomology.— The study of the anatomy, physiology, 
classification, and economic importance of insects. Especial 
attention is given to injurious and beneficial insects. Insecticides 
and approved methods of destroying insects are considered. The 
department has for illustration a collection of insects', charts, 
models, and an abundant insect fauna. 

The text-books are Packard's Entomology for Beginners, and 
Comstock's Entomology. A full set of Riley's, Fitch's, and 
Lintners Reports, the entomological publications of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, the Illinois Reports, various other 
State and experiment station reports and current literature are 
"used for reference. Five hoars a fortnight for twenty weeks. 

G 10. Geology. — Especial attention is given to the origin 
and formation of soils, to the method of conducting a geological 
survey and to the geology of Maine. Excursions are made to 
points of interest. The course is illustrated by mineral, rock, 
and fossil specimans, and by charts, maps, and diagrams. 

The text-book is Le Conte's Elements of Geology. Five hours 
a fortnight for sixteen weeks. Prof. Harvey. 


Professor Jordan ; Professor Gowell ; Dr. Russell. 

H 1. Agricultural Chemistry. Lectures and recitations 
on the chemical changes in nature important to agriculture, the 
composition of air, soils, natural waters and plants, the sources 
and assimilation of plant food, and the chemical processes and 
methods of investigation by which these subjects are studied. 

Five hours a fortnight fer sixteen iveeks. Prof. Jordan. 

H 2. Agricultural Chemistry. A continuation of course 
1. Lectures and recitations in physiological chemistry, includ- 
ing the composition of cattle foods and human foods, the com- 
position of the animal body, the chemical changes involved in 
the digestion and assimilation of food ; also the chemistry of 
milk and dairy products, and the chemical processes and meth- 
ods of investigation by which these subjects are studied. 

Five hours a week for twenty weeks. Prof. Jordan. 

H 3. Agricultural Chemistry. Lectures on*the origin, 
composition, preparation and use of commercial fertilizers, the 
supply, composition, care and use of farm manures, and the 
general considerations which pertain to the maintenance of soil 

Five hours a fortnight for eight weeks. Prof. Jordan. 


H 4. Agricultural Physics. Lectures on the relation 
of soils to heat and moisture, the mechanical condition of soils 
best suited to plant growth and the objects to be gained by cul- 

Five hoars a fortnight for ten weeks. Prof. Jordan. 

H 5. Agricultural Engineering. Lectures on farm drain- 
age, irrigation, water supply for stock and household, farm 
implements and machinery, handling crops and construction of 
farm buildings, sites, etc. 

Five hours a fortnight for ten weeks. Prof. Go well. 

H 6. Stock Feeding.— Lectures on the production of cattle 
foods and their composition, on formulating rations for milk and 
meat production ; and application of the lectures to the animals 
in the herd. 

The text-books are Armsby's Cattle Feeding, Stewart's Feed- 
ing Animals, and station reports. Five hours a fortnight for eight 
weeks.- Prof. Gowlll. 

H 7. Dairying — Lectures upon the formation and composi- 
tion of milk; sources of infection; bacteria and their relation to 
dairying; ferments and their effects. 

The text-books are Grotenfelt and Woll's Principles of Modern 
Dairy Practice, Stewart's Dairyman's Manual, Flint's Milch 
Cows and Dairy Farming, and Arnold's American Dairying. 
Five hours a iveek for six weeks. Prof. Gowell. 

H 8. Stock Breeding. — Lectures upon animal reproduction, 
the principles of breeding, and the means of improvement and 
development. Practice is given in judging animals by a scale of 

The text-books are Miles's Cattle Breeding, Saunders 7 s Horse 
Breeding, and Curtis' Breeds. Five hours a week for eight weeks. 
Prof. Gowell. 

H 9. Poultry Industry. — Lectures, with practice in hand- 
ling poultry, and judging by a scale of j)oints ; in breeding; in 
hatching by natural and artificial processes ; and in the use of 
machinery. Caponizing, and the construction and arrangement 
of buildings receive careful attention. 

Five hours a week for six weeks. Prof. Go well. 

H 10. Dairy Practice.— The treatment and handling of milk 
and cream; milk testing for fat and other solids; aeration, pas- 
teurization and sterilization of milk and cream ; the application of 
acid tests and ferments to butter and cheese making ; operating 
and caring for the boiler, engine, gravity creamers, centrifugal 
separators, churns, workers, vats, presses, and the making, cur- 
ing and judging of butter and cheese, together with the business 
management of factories and creameries. 


Each student must provide himself with two suits of clothes 
made of white drilling. 
Five hours a week for twenty weeks. Prof. GOWELL. 

H 11. Veterinary Science.— Lectures, demonstrations and 
clinics, illustrated by models, natural preparations and living 
animals. Particular attention is given to means of preserving 
health, the nursing of sick animals, the prevention of contagious 
diseases and the treatment of the most common and simple dis- 
eases of cattle and horses. 

Five hours a fortnight for twenty weeks. Dr. Russell. 

H 12. Veterinary Practice.— As far as there is oppor- 
tunity students will make practical application of the instruction 
given in the lectures on veterinary science. They will prescribe 
and administer simple remedies and have the care of sick ani- 
mals. Dr. Russell. 

H 13. Bacteriology.— Methods of cultivating bacteria, the 
morphological and biological character of bacteria and fungi 
particularly of those relating to disease and of those of impor- 
tance from an economic standpoint, the methods of making 
biological examinations of air, water, etc. Dr. Russell. 


Professor Munson. 

I 1. Pomology. A discussion of the most approved methods 
of fruit culture ; the most important enemies and diseases of 
fruits, with remedies and preventives. 

Five hours a fortnight for ten icecks. 

I 2. Olericulture, or Vegetable Gardening. Lectures 
concerning the leading garden vegetables with directions for 
their culture in the field and under glass ; also practical demon- 

Three hours a week for ten weeks. 

I 3. Plant Variation. A discussion of th$ underlying 
principles of horticulture. The course includes a consideration 
of the origin and distribution of cultivated plants; their varia- 
tion as affected by soil, climate and cultivation ; also a systematic 
study of plant-breeding, including the methods and effects of 
crossing, the principles of selection and the influence of heredity. 
Students in this course must have taken course 6. 

Three hours a week for eight weeks. 

I 4. Landscape Gardening. A discussion of the princi- 
ples of landscape art and their application to the embellishment 
of rural surroundings. 

Three hours a week for eight weeks. 


I 5. Laboratory Horticulture. Practical work in the 
propagation and culture of plants, the construction and manage- 
ment of forcing- structures, and the making of plans for rural 

\Four hours a week for twenty weeks, and five hours a week for 
sixteen weeks, in the junior and senior years respectively. 

I 6. General Botany. Lectures and other class work. A 
study of the structure and functions of the organs of plants; 
the relation of the plant to soil and atmosphere ; the description, 
classification and naming of plants ; the relationship of plants of 
the greatest economic importance. The lectures will be sup- 
plemented by a study of charts and Brendel plant models, also 
by work in the general herbariums, the greenhouses and the 
field. Gray's Lessons and Manual of Botany is used for refer- 
ence. Five hours a week for twenty weeks. 

I 7. Histology of Plants. A description and comparison 
of tissues with investigation of the minute anatomy of vegeta- 
ble organs and studies in the phenomena of cell development 
and fertilization. 

t Five hours a fortnight for ten weeks. 

Assistant Professor Grover; Mr. Colby. 
J 1 . Free-hand Drawing. — This course consists of the exer- 
cises in parts five, seven and nine of Bartholomew's Industrial 
Drawing, drawing geometrical solids such as the cube, cylinder 
and prism, common objects such as chairs and tables, and prac- 
tice in free-hand lettering. 

\Five hours a fortnight for sixteen weeks. Mr. Colby. 

J 2. Mechanical Drawing. — This course consists of instruc- 
tion and practice in the care and use of drawing instruments, in 
the drawing of geome rical problems and in water colors. 
Especial attention is given to accuracy and neatness. 

fFive hours a tveekfor twenty weeks. Prof. Grover. 

J 3. Mathematical Drawing. — A short course in the plot- 
ting of functions, and in the solution of equations by the graphic 

\ Three hours a week for ten weeks. Prof. Grover. 


Professor Hamlin; Assistant Professor Grover. 

K 1. Mechanical Drawing.— Problems in shades and shadows, 
and dimension drawing. 

The text-book is Faunce's Mechanical Drawing, f Seven hours 
a week for sixteen weeks. Prof. Grover. 


K 2. Plane Surveying. — This course includes recitations on 
the general principles of land surveying, the laying out of land, 
the dividing of land, surveying of public lands, direct leveling, 
and the variation of the magnetic needle. 

The text-book is Staley's Gillespie's Surveying. Five hours a 
fortnight for twenty weeks. Prof. Grove u. 

K 3. Field Work in Surveying.— The student is made 
familiar with the uses of the chain, compass, transit, and level, 
working with each in the field. Instruments are adjusted, origi- 
nal surveys made, and old lines retraced. Deeds are examined, 
and descriptions of property traced back in the Penobscot 
County Registry of Deeds. In the drawing room plats are pre- 
pared of the surveys made in the field. 

•fTwo hours a week for ten weeks and six hours a week for ten 
weeks. Prof. Grover. 

K 4. Railroad Engineering. — Lectures and recitations on 
the theory of railroad curves, switches, turnouts, and slope 
stakes, the calculation of earth works, and the resistance to 
trains offered by grades and curves. 

The text-book is Searles's Field Engineering. 

Seven hours a fortnight for twelve weeks. Prof. Grover. 

K 5. Railroad, Field and Office Work. — The basis of 
this course is the location and detailed survey of a railroad sever- 
al miles long. The curves are laid out, levels taken, and all the 
necessary measurements made to enable the student to compute 
the excavations and. embankments and estimate the cost of con- 

\Ten hours a week for sixteen weeks. Prof. Grover. 

K 6. Highway Engineering. — Attention is given chiefly to 
country highways and relates to the location, construction, and 
improvement of roads under different conditions of soil, climate, 
and traffic. The text-book is supplemented by lectures. 

The text-book is Gillespie's Roads and Railroads. Seven hours 
■a fortnight for four weeks. Prof. Hamlin; Prof. Grover. 

K 7. Mechanics. — This course consists of problems in the 
composition and resolution of forces, followed by exercises in 
finding the moment of inertia, the center of gravity, the shear- 
ing force and bending moment. 

The text-book is Lanza's Applied Mechanics. Five hours a 
vjeek for sixteen weeks and five hours a week for twelve weeks. Prof. 


K 8. Graphic Statics. — The principles involved in the 
graphical resolution of forces are given by lectures. The stresses 


in the different parts of various trusses, under uniform or con- 
centrated loads, are determined graphically in the drawing room. 
Lectures and exercises in the drawing room. 

Five hours a week for eight weeks. Prof. G rover. 

K 9. General Drawing. — Isometric and cabinet projections* 
and perspective, and the preparation of working drawings. Lec- 
tures and exercises in the drawing room. 

Six or ten hours a week for twelve weeks. Prof. Grover. 

K 10. Stereotomy. — A practical application of the methods 
of descriptive geometry. The student prepares the drawings 
required by the stone cutter and mason in building different 
kinds of masonry structures, such as retaining walls, bridge 
abutments, piers, and arches. Lectures and exercises in the 
drawing room. 

\ Seven hours a week for ten weeks. Prof. Grover. 

K 11. Sanitary Engineering.— Land drainage, drainage of 
houses and towns, plumbing of houses, sewerage of towns and 
cities, and the ventilation of houses are considered. Lectures. 

Seven hours a fortnight for ten weeks. Prof. Hamlin. 

K 12. Higher Surveying. — The student is taught the use of 
the plane table, solar compass, — as applied to the survej^ of pub- 
lic lands — stadia measurements, topographical surveying, and 
the elements of geodesy, such as the correct measurement of 
base lines, calculation of triangulation. No text-book is used. 

Ten hours a week for eight weeks. Prof. Hamlin. 

K 13. Mechanics of Materials. — A detailed study of the 
properties of materials used in engineering structures, such as 
iron, steel, wood, and their resistance to bending, breaking, 
extension, and compression, under the various conditions of prac- 
tice. The testing laboratory is well equipped. 

The text-books are Lanza's Mechanics, Merriman's Mechanics 
of Material, and lectures. Five hours a week for nine weeks* 
Prof. Hamlin. 

K 14. Foundations and Masonry Construction.— Atten- 
tion is given to the testing and use of the materials of masonry 
construction, building stone, brick, cement and lime. Among the 
subjects considered are different classes of foundations, natural 
and artificial ; the stability of dams and retaining walls ; the 
designing of bridge piers and abutments. The class room work 
is supplemented by exercises in the laboratory. 

The text-book is Baker's Masonry Construction. Seven hours, 
a fortnight for twenty weeks. Prof. Grover. 


K 15. Hydraulics. — The weight, pressure and motion of 
water; the flow of water through orifices, and through pipes 
underpressure; the measuring of weirs and weir gauging; the 
flow of water in open channels, mains and distribution pipes; 
distribution systems ; the construction of water works for towns 
and cities. The measurement of the flow of rivers is illustrated 
by the application of the current meter and the various forms of 
floats to the Penobscot river or some of its large branches. The 
department is well supplied with apparatus. The course includes 
frequent lectures and the solution of numerous problems. 

The text-books are Fanning's Hydraulics and Chur-li's Mechan- 
ics of Engineering Fluids. Five hours a week for seven weeks 
devoted to lectures and seven hours a week for eight weeks devoted to 
field work. Prof. Hamlin. 

K 16. Designing and Thesis Work. — The student is taught 
the method of calculating the stresses in the various forms of 
roof and bridge trusses, the methods of loading, and makes com- 
plete designs for bridges in wood and in iron, working out the 
dimensions of the parts, and preparing the drawings for the 
shop. Lectures. 

The text-book is Johnson's Modern Framed Structures. Seven 
hours a week for eight weeks and twelve hours a week for twenty weeks. 
Prof. Hamlin. 

Prof. Flint; Mr. Webb; Mr. Durgin. 

L 1. Machine Design. — This subject is studied in the most 
practical way. The theoretical rules and formulas are applied 
to existing machines of standard manufacture for the compari- 
son of the actual and theoretical dimensions. The rules for the 
dimensions of brackets, beams, posts, etc., are investigated and 
compared with results obtained by experiment. The subject of 
riveted joints is fully considered, the student being required to 
solve numerous problems on the efficiency of the various kinds. 
Attention is given to the designing of bolts, keys, etc. Lubri- 
cants are studied and their adaptability to different kinds of 
machinery discussed. The subject of work in its various forms 
is investigated. The work done in the cylinder of an engine is 
determined by means of the indicator and compared with that 
done on the crank-pin at the same time. The diameter of line 
shafting, size of pulleys and crank shafts, weight of fly wheels, 
size of connecting rods, etc., are calculated in accordance with 
the best modern practice. In connection with this work the 
student is required to design a complete speed lathe and to make 
working drawings for its construction. The course includes 
numerous other exercises of a similar character. 

Seven hours a fortnight for twenty weeks. Prof. Flint. 


L 2. Carpentry.— Instruction and practice in the care and 
sharpening of tools, the squaring of stock, and taking work out 
of wind ; followed by practice in making the different joints in 
soft and hard wood. Particular attention is paid to accuracy of 
workmanship. Instruction is given in wood turning, intended to 
acquaint the student with the use of the tools and the ordinary 
operations of wood turning. The tools are furnished by the 
department. The charge for materials is $5.00 a term. 

fSix hours a week J or sixteen weeks. Mr. Durgin. 

L 3. Forge Work. — The work begins with the simple oper- 
ations of drawing and upsetting. Then follow the welding of 
straight pieces of various sizes, the making of rings, and chain 
links, the welding of eye bolts and bolt heads, etc. Each stu- 
dent makes from steel a center punch, cold chisels, and a full set 
of lath tools, which are finished and tempered for future use in 
the machine shop. Each student is required to furnish a forging 
hammer, calipers and square at a cost of $2.50. The charge for 
materials is $5.00 per term. As a part of this course instruction 
is giving in foundry work. Moulding and pouring are done by 
the student under the instruction of a practical foundryman 
The tools are furnished by the college. No charges are made. 

t Eight hours a week for twenty weeks. Mr. Webb. 

L 4. Analytic Mechanics. — Elementary principles and defi 
nitions ; composition and resolution of forces ; center of gravity ; 
friction ; virtual velocities ; elementary machines ; work and 
energy ; moment of inertia. 

The text-book is Bowser's Analytic Mechanics. Five hours a 
week for thirty-six weeks. Mr. Webb. 

L 5. Kinematics. This subject is studied with reference to 
the construction of cams, lobed wheels and gear teeth. The 
various methods by which one kind of motion may be trans- 
formed into another are investigated and analyzed, and illustrat- 
ed by the solution of practical problems. The construction of 
cycloidal and involute gears is studied both theoretically and 
practically by means of problems and models. 

Lectures. In the mechanical engineering course, five hours and 
in the electrical engineering course three hours a week for sixteen 
weeks. Prof. Flint. 

L 6. Link and Valve Motion. — The design and proportion 
of engine cylinders, steam pipes, and ports; the design and 
working of engine valves ; the setting of eccentrics ; adjustable 
eccentrics ; the design and working of the locomotive link motion 
with its connections. Problems in slide valve and locomotive 
link motion are worked out in the drawing room. 

The text-book is Auchincloss's Link and Yalve Motion. In the 
mechanical course jour hours, and in the electrical course two hours a 
week for sixteen weeks. Mr. Webb. 


L 7. Machine Work. — This course commences with exer- 
cises in filing and chipping, which occupy from thirty to forty 
hours. The work then consists of ordinary lathe work, drilling, 
boring and threading in the lathe, making cut gears, machinist's 
taps, finished bolts, and exercises on the planers and shaper. In 
addition to the tools procured and made while in the forge shop, 
each student is required to provide himself with center guage, 
steel scale, and a set of files at a cost of $2.50. The charge for 
materials in the courses in machine work is $5.00 a term. The 
time devoted to machine work varies. It is stated in the tables. Mr. 

L 8. Steam Engine. — The steam engine is studied with refer- 
ence to its adaptability as a prime mover or source of power. 
The various details of a steam engine are calculated and drawings 
of them are made. The results are compared w T ith those of the 
best practice. The student is given a thorough drill with the 
indicator; by means of diagrams he is taught to determine the 
setting of valves, to calculate the horse power, and to estimate 
the water consumption, and the number of pounds of coal 
required per horse-power per hour. This study makes the student 
familiar with the indicator and planimeter, and the method of 
making efficiency tests of steam plants. One-third of the time is 
given to recitations and two-thirds to drawing. 

Two hours a week for sixteen weeks. Prof. Flint. 

L 9. Hydro-mechanics. — The behavior of liquids in motion 
and under pressure, flowing through pipes and in open channels, 
with problems involving a large number of different conditions, 
is studied for its usefulness in determining the size of pipes suit- 
able for various purposes. 

The text-book is Bowser's Hydromechanics. Three hours a 
fortnight for twenty weeks. Prof. Flint. 

L 10. Steam Boilers. — The characteristics of steam and its 
behavior in pipes and boilers, with particular attention to its 
action in the cylinders of engines are considered. Problems 
involving the properties of saturated steam are solved; and the 
student is required to design a boiler to run an engine under 
' given conditions, and to make a complete set of detailed draw- 
ings for its construction. He is also required to calculate sizes 
of steam pipes and safetjr valves. 

In the mechanical engineering course five hours^ and in the electri- 
cal engineering course two hours a week for twenty iveeks. Prof. 

L 11. Testing. — Instruction is given in testing steam guages, 
boilers, etc. The department is supplied with apparatus for the 


purpose. The properties of the various metals and their be- 
havior under tension and compression, are illustrated by the use 
of the testing machine. 

Five hours a week for two toeeks. Prof. Flint. 

L 12. Steam Engine Designing. —Drawings are made of the 
more important parts of the design worked out in course 8. 

\Ten hours a week for sixteen weeks. Prof. Flint. 

L 13. Steam Boiler Designing. — Drawings are made in 
detail from the calculations worked out in course 10. 
\Ten hours a week for ten weeks. Prof. Flint. 

L 14. Thesis Work.— Each student is required to prepare a 
a thesis, as a condition of graduation, which is to consist of a 
design of some piece of machinery. 


Professor Stevens; Mr. Chapin. 
Ml. Electricity and Magnetism. This continues the sub- 
ject of electricity and magnetism begun in physics. Lectures 
are given, and laboratory methods and results are discussed 
with the class. The text-book is Silvanus Thompson's Elec- 
tricity and Magnetism. Two hours a week for sixteen weeks. Mr. ' 

M 2. Electricity and Magnetism. A continuation of 
course 1. The work is more directly connected with the dynamo 
and apparatus connected with its operation. 

Three hours a week for twenty weeks. Mr. Chapin. 

M 3. Electrical Measurements and Testing. This is the 
usual junior laboratory course. The work consists of the meas- 
urement of insistence, potential, capacity and current, testing 
galvanometers, electrolysis, etc. 

Four hour a week for sixteen weeks. Mr. Chapin. 

M 4. Electrical Testing. A continuation of course 3. 
Introductory work on the dynamo is begun. Students tak-^ 
ing this course work in the shop six hours a week. This 
arrangement gives them an opportunity to construct for them- 
selves many electrical devices including small dynamos and 

-\Four hours a week for twenty weeks. Mr. Chapin. 

M 5. Electrical Machinery. — Lectures on the theory and 
construction of dynamos, motors, etc. 

Tvjo hours a week for sixteen weeks. Mr. Chapin. 


M 6. Electrical Engineering.— In this course is taken up 
the theory of alternate current machinery, and its application 
to electric lighting-; the electric railway; light and power sta- 
tions, etc. The finely equipped light and power station at Veazie, a 
few miles from the College, affords a valuable opportunity for 
the students to see the practical arrangement and working, of 
both direct and alternate current machines. 

Two hours a week for twenty weeks. Mil. Chapin. 

M 7. Electrical Design.— This course corresponds to the 
course in machine design given to the students in mechanical 
engineering. Each student is required to make the computa- 
tions and complete drawings for a dynamo. 

fSix hours a week for sixteen weeks. Mr. Chapin. 

M 8. Electrical Design.— A continuation of course 7. 
Problems in light distribution, etc., are taken up. 
t Five hours a v*eek for twenty vieeks. Mr. Chapin. 

M 9. Laboratory Electricity.— Tests of electrical instru- 
ments; experimental work with dynamos, motors, etc. ; tests of 
efficiency ; photometric tests of electric lamps ; the practical 
management of the electric light plant. 

■fFour hours a week for sixteen weeks. Mr. Chapin. 

M 10. Laboratory Electricity and Thesis Work. — A 
continuation of course 9. The student devotes a large part'of 
his time to some special investigation selected as the subject for 
his graduating thesis. 

■fSix hours a week for twenty iveeks. Mr. Chapin. 

M 11. Theoretical Electricity. A short course of lec- 
tures treating the subject from the theoretical standpoint. The 
topics discussed will vary from year to year, but will be based 
upon one of the following subjects : The mathematical theory of 
electricity ; the nature of electricity, and Hertz's investigation ; 
the theory of adjustment of observations applied to electrical 

One hour a week for twenty weeks. Prop. Stevens. 

Professor Hersey. 
N 1 . Physical Training.— In connection with the w r ork of 
this department, the members of the Freshman Class are given a 
course in physical training, under the personal direction of the 
Professor of Military Science. The aim is to secure a symmet- 
rical development of the muscular system, and to arouse a pride 


in firm muscles, a clear skin, and an upright carriage. At the 
beginning of the course each student is examined and measured 
to discover physical defects, and individual exercises are pre- 
scribed for their correction. The work required of all members 
of the class comprises free movements, sand bag exercises, deep 
breathing exercises, practice with dumb bells, wands, and Indian 

•fTwo hours a week for thirty-six weeks. 

N 2. Military Science. —(a.) Infantry exercises begin with 
setting-up exercises and military gymnastics, and continue with 
manual of arms and bayonet exercise. School of the company, 
school of the battalion, and extended order movements follow. 
(b.) Target practice at known distances up to six hundred yards, 
and skirmish tiring over range of six hundred yards. Marks- 
man's buttons are awarded to cadets who qualify, (c.) Mili- 
tary signalling with flag, lantern, heliograph, and field telegraph. 
(d.) Band practice, (e.) One week is spent in camp. Cadets 
are instructed in the duties of a sentinal, make practice marches 
of from five to fifteen miles, learn advance guard and outpost 
duties, make hasty fortifications, and work out practically the 
problems of minor tactics. 

Three hours a week for the first and last thirteen weeks of each 

ET 3. Military Science.— Recitations onU. S. Infantry Drill 
Regulations and Manual of Guard Duty. 

Three hours a fortnight for ten weeks of the sophomore and junior 

IS" 4. Military Science. — Lectures and recitations on mili- 
tary science, including organization, administration, discipline 
and instruction of armies ; logistics ; security and information ; 
manufacture and use of gunpowder ; high explosives ; small arms ; 
cannon ; projectiles ; armor ; mines and torpedoes ; construction 
of military bridges and destruction of bridges, roads, etc. ; coast 
defences ; military law and military history ; closing with studies 
on campaigns illustrating the principles of the art of war. 

The text-book is CalefFs Notes on Military Science. Three 
hours a fortnight for ten weeks. 

Essays. Each member of the senior class is required to sub- 
mit an essay at the beginning of the spring term on a military 
subject preferably allied to his other college work. 



Three courses of lectures are offered designed for^farmers or 
young* men expecting to become farmers, who are unable to 
devote a longer time to study. 

These courses begin on the first Tuesday of January of each 
year and continue six weeks. They are made up of lectures and 
recitations arranged in three divisions or groups. Each group 
consists of four lectures per day for thirtyldays,^or one hundred 
and twenty lectures in all. A student can attend the lectures of 
one group only and should be prepared on coming to make his 

- The instruction includes lectures and recitations|upon agricul- 
tural chemistry, animal industry, dairy husbandry, horticulture, 
veterinary science, agricultural engineering, entomology, and 
business law, combined with practical work in the barn, dairy 
building, and forcing houses. 


This course is designed to give a variety of information useful 
to the general farmer, without giving special attention to one 
branch of business. 

Plant and animal nutrition, 20 lectures. Commercial ferti- 
lizers and farm manures, 10 lectures. Breeds, breeding and feed- 
ing, 25 lectures. Agricultural engineering, 15 lectures. Injurious 
insects and fungi, 15 lectures. Veterinary science, 20 lectures. 
Business law, 15 lectures. Lectures in the morning and practical 
work in the afternoon. 


This course is designed for those who are to make dairying a 
specialty, or for those who propose to become expert butter 
makers or cheese makers. If the course is pursued during two 
terms, and two seasons' satisfactory work is performed in some 
butter or cheese factory, the student will be granted a certificate 
of proficiency. 


Plant and animal nutrition, 20 lectures. Commercial and farm 
manures, 10 lectures. Breeds, breeding and feeding, 25 lectures. 
Milk, butter and cheese dairying, 20 lectures. Milk testing, 5 lec- 
tures. Care of boilers, 5 lectures. Veterinary science, 20 lec- 
tures. Business law, 15 lectures. 

Lectures in the morning and practical work in the dairy in the 


This course is designed for those who expect to give special 
attention to fruit growing, market gardening or floriculture. 

Plant and animal nutrition, 20 lectures. Commercial and farm 
manures, 10 lectures. Economic botany, 15 lectures. Vegetable 
gardening and fruit growing, 30 lectures. Farm machinery, 10 
lectures. Injurious insects and fungi, 15 lectures. Business law, 
15 lectures. 

Lectures in the morning and practical work in the forcing 
houses in the afternoon. 



A summer school, especially intended for teachers and students 
preparing for college, will be maintained for three weeks, begin- 
ning July 15, 1895, under the joint control of the State Superin- 
tendent of Schools, and of the college. 

Instruction will be given in chemistry, physics, geology, botany, 
zoology, English, civics, pedagogy and child study, and domestic 
economy. There will be recitations and lecture courses in each 
subject, and laboratory courses in each except English, civics and 
pedagogy. In physics and chemisiry, there will be two labora- 
tory courses, one consisting of the series of exercises recommended 
by the u Committee of Ten, v the other a more advanced course. 

In the evenings there will be lectures, concerts, conferences, 
and social entertainments. Saturdays, will be devoted to field 
work, excursions, and amusements. Tuition will be free, but 
each laboratory student will be charged §5.00 for materials and 
apparatus. Inquiries may be addressed to the President of the 
College, at Orono, or to the Superintendent of Schools, at 


University extension courses were planned last year and 
announced in the catalogue. The growth of the college in its 
regular courses has been so much greater than was expected, 
that the instructors have as much work as they can do satis- 
factorily. Systematic extension work, except in agricultural 
lines, is therefore given up. 



Theffarm course, is an application of the methods of univer- 
sity extension to agriculture. It consists of two lectures each 
day for one week. The subjects of the lectures offered during 
the present year are stated in detail below. The courses begin 
in the fall and continue until about the first of April. Courses 
will be given wherever a class of sufficient size — at present, 
twelve — can be got together under an agreement to attend the 
meetings of the class regularly, and to pay the expenses involved. 
The expenses depend largely upon the distance which the lec- 
turers must travel, and can be reduced when two courses are 
carried on at the same time in adjacent places. It is the inten- 
tion to illustrate the subjects under discussion as fully as possi- 
ble by the use of charts, pictures, lantern slides, apparatus, and 
specimens. The more important apparatus, such as the Bab- 
cock milk test, can be shown in actual operation. Reading 
courses on parallel lines are provided. Quizzes and examinations 
will be given for those who desire them. The courses are open 
to men and women alike. 


During the season of 1894-5 the lectures will include the fol- 
lowing subjects and lecturers : 

Four lectures by Professor Jordan. (1) The composition of 
the air, soil and plants. (2) Relation of the plant to the soil 
and air. (3) Commercial manures — their sources, preparation, 
composition and use. (4) Farm manures — their production, 
composition and treatment. 

Four lectures by Professor Gowell. (1) Principles of breed- 
ing animals. (2) Principles of feeding animals. (3) Cattle 
foods and their sources. (4) Milk and its production. 

Four lectures by Professor Munson. (1) Small fruits. (2) 
The orchard. (3) Some enemies and diseases of plants. (4) 
Horticulture and the home. 



The library on the first floor of Coburn Hall, contains nearly 
nine thousand bound volumes, and about two thousand pamph- 
lets. About sixty of the most important literary and technical 
papers, magazines, and reviews, both American and foreign, are 
kept on file here. The growth of the library is slow, as it has no 
endowment, and is dependent on what the trustees are able to 
appropriate for its needs. Many volumes are received from the 
U. S. government each year, but as the library is not a deposi- 
tory of public documents, the sets of government publications 
are quite incomplete. 

The library is open for consultation and circulation of books 
eight hours daily during the week. Experiments have been 
made, at different times, in evening opening of the library, but 
the use made of it was so small that it was discontinued. Stu- 
dents are allowed direct access to the shelves. Students may 
have two books each at a time, to be kept two weeks, when 
they may be renewed, unless some one else has put in an appli- 
cation for them. There is a fine of two cents a day for books 
kept over time. If additional books are needed for special work 
they can be had on application to the librarian. 

The books are arranged according to Mr. Dewey's decimal 
classification, by which they are divided first into the ten classes : 
0. General works; 1. Philosophy; 2. Eeligion; 3. Sociology: 
4. Sociology; 5. Science; 6. Useful arts; 7. Fine arts; 8. 
Literature; 9. History. Each of these classes is divided into 
ten divisions, which are again divided and sub-divided. In this 
system the numbering of the books indicates their subjects, and 
not a fixed place on the shelves. There are two card catalogues ; 
the author and title catalogue, arranged alphabetically, and the 
subject catalogue in which the cards are arranged in order of 

A reading room located on the first floor of Oak Hall, under 
the management of the students, is provided with the principal 
daily and weekly newspapers. 



The museum is located in the two upper stories of the wing of 
Coburn Hall. In the upper story are exhibited the mineral col- 
lection, geological specimens and plant models. The mineral 
cabinet embraces a general collection of three hundred species of 
the more common minerals which are arranged for study accord- 
ing to Dana's system. There is a fine collection of economic 
minerals, embracing the important ores useful in the arts and 
sciences, donated by the United States ^National Museum. The 
geological cabinet embraces a small collection of plant and ani- 
mal fossils and a collection of 250 specimens of the more impor- 
tant fragment al, crystalline, and volcanic rocks, arranged in 
drawers. The collection of Brendel plant models is assigned a 
special case. 

On the lower floor are displayed the collections of vertebrate 
and invertebrate animals and a set of animal models. The inver- 
tebrates include working collections of sponges, hydroids, corals, 
echinoderms, vermes, mollusks, crustaceans, and insects, besides 
interesting native and exotic exhibition specimens of all the 
above groups. The vertebrates include the nucleus of a collec- 
tion of State fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals, besides a set of 
type exotic mammals. The collection of animal models embraces 
a human manikin, special models of the human eye, ear, and 
larynx, and models of an insect, leach, snail, fish, snake and 



The Agricultural Experiment Station of the Maine State Col- 
lege owes its existence to the passage by Congress of an act, 
popularly known as the Hatch Act, which became a law on 
March 2, 1887. This act specifically provides that the Station 
shall be a department of the College. As such it has been 
organized and therefore sustains the same relation to the govern- 
ing board as the departments of instruction. 

Such are the conditions, however, under which this depart- 
ment was created, placing it in peculiar and intimate relations 
with the agriculture of the State, and so essential is it to satisfy 
the general government that the lines of w T ork and expenditure 
of funds are in accordance with the terms of the law, that the 
Station has an administration and equipment which appear to 
place it somewhat apart from the general body of the institution. 

The affairs of the Station, excepting the selection of its officers, 
are considered by a Station Council, which consists of a commit- 
tee of the Trustees of the College, the President of the College, 
members of the Station Staff, and representatives from the State 
Board of Agriculture, the State Pomological Society and the 
Patrons of Husbandry. This Council is advisory in its capacity 
and refers the results of its deliberations to the Trustees for 
ratification. In this way a decision is reached as to the experi- 
ments and investigations to be undertaken, and the distribution 
of the expenditures in various directions, otherwise than 

The Station Staff includes ten persons : a director, two 
chemists, a botanist and entomologist, a veterinarian, a horticul- 
turist and an assistant, a meteorological observer, a foreman of 
experimental work in the field and barn, and a stenographer. 

The appliances which the Station has at its command consist 
of a building which contains the office and chemical and bacter- 
iological laboratories well equipped with apparatus, a finely con- 
structed forcing house 65 by 18 feet, devoted to the study of 
plant nu'rition, a part of another forcing house 100 by 20 feet 
for general horticultural experiments, rooms for photographic 
work, meteorological apparatus, an unusually well built barn 100 
by 40 feet convenient for digestion and feeding experiments with 
both cattle and swine, twenty-five acres of land occupied by gen- 


eral field experiments, a few acres set with large and small 
fruits, a vegetable garden, farm, garden and dairy apparatus, 
and a varying number of experimental animals. A certain 
amount ©f fruit has been set in several localities in the State, 
which is under the general supervision of the station horticul- 

The Station receives §15,000 annually from the general govern- 
ment which is supplemented by a small sum derived from the 
sale of farm and garden products. 

The act of Congress declares that the experiment stations 
shall be established "in order to aid in acquiring and diftusing 
among the people of the United States useful and practical infor- 
mation on subjects connected with agriculture, and to promote 
scientific investigation and experiment respecting the principles 
and application of agricultural science." This general purpose 
is to be accomplished by making it "the object and duty of said 
experiment stations to conduct original researches or verify ex- 
periments" along various lines which are specified somewhat in 
detail, but which considered broadly relate to plant and animal 
nutrition, plant and animal diseases and pests, and the technics 
of the various methods involved in crop production and animal 
husbandry. The Maine Experiment Station is therefore by legal 
enactment, as it is believed to be in fact, a department of experi- 
ment and investigation. Its true purpose is evidently not to give 
that sort of instruction for which provision is made in the agri- 
cultural departments of the "land grant" colleges, but rather to 
enlarge the domain of that scientific knowledge which is inti- 
mately related to the art of agriculture and to disseminate the 
facts which it may acquire in such a manner as to most generally 
and safely secure for them their proper place in agricultural 

It is certainly incumbent upon this State to shape its work 
with reference to the special features and needs of Maine agri- 
culture. An effort has been made to do so, and as Maine is one 
of the older states, the fertility of whose soil is somewhat 
impaired, and as stock husbandry in general, and more especially 
dairy husbandry, is to an increasing extent the farmer's main 
reliance under the conditions which prevail in this State, the 
activities of the Station have heretofore largely related to fertili- 
zers, plant and animal nutrition, and to the problems which per- 
tain to the production and handling of milk. Orcharding and 
market gardening occupy an important place in the plans of work 
and the diseases and pests of plants and animals are given much 

The publications of the Station consist of annual reports and 
frequent short bulletins. The latter are intended to convey to 
farmers, in a form adapted to popular comprehension, all the 
results that in any way relate to farm practice. 


The annual reports, on the other hand, are expected to contain 
a fuller statement of the proceedings of the Station, involving 
to some extent the technical language of science, with a com- 
pleteness of data that might be bewildering to those not 
accustomed to a close analysis of language and facts. These 
reports will include nothing of value to practical agriculture not 
set forth in' the bulletins. 

All station bulletins are sent to farmers on request, free of 
expense. The annual reports are sent only when a statement is 
made that they are especially desired. 



One day in each year is known as the field day of the agricul- 
tural department. The usual college exercises are omitted and 
all departments are thrown open to visitors. Especial effort is 
made to exhibit the facilities of the agricultural department in 
the most thorough manner. Special rates are obtained on the 
railroad for those who come from a distance. The attendance 
has ranged from twelve hundred to seventeen hundred persons. 
The program includes informal talks by members of the faculty 
in regard to the collections, demonstrations with some of the 
more important apparatus, exhibitions of improved agricultural 
machinery, the operation of the dairy building, an exhibit of 
agricultural products, tools, and supplies contributed by manu- 
facturers and dealers. Tests of new agricultural machinery are 
made. The experiments of the Experiment Station are explained 
by the investigators. 

In the afternoon the cadets give an exhibition drill, and later a 
meeting is held in the chapel. Addresses are made by represen- 
tatives of the Board of Trustees, the Faculty of the College and 
the various important agricultural organizations, and by other 
distinguished visitors. Circulars in regard to Field Day may be 
obtained by addressing the Professor of Agriculture. 



The College is maintained at public expense for the public 
good. Those who participate in its benefits should therefore be 
required to fulfill faithfully their obligations as loyal members 
of the institution, of the community and of the commonwealth. 
All students owe to the public for its expenditure in their behalf 
an equivalent in the form of superior usefulness and prompt per- 
formance of duties. As members of the community they are 
amenable to the law. The College recognizes its relation to the 
commonwealth as a State institution and a part of the State gov- 
ernment, and will not shield students from the consequences of 
acts in violation of State laws. This attitude is expressly recog- 
nized and commanded by an act of the Legislature which requires 
that in the case of offences against the public order students, like 
other persons, shall be held responsible for their deeds by the 
officers of the law. The College will obey this command of the 
State both loyally and faithf ully, and not only refrain from plac- 
ing any obstacles in the way of the execution of the law, but on 
the contrary do everything proper to assist in its administration. 


The College Regulations for the government of the College in 
regard to the selection of studies, standings and grades, absences 
from recitations and examinations, rhetorical exercises, entrance 
conditions, leave of absence, attendance upon church and chapel, 
penalties, examinations and athletics are printed in full in the 
annual report of the President for the year ending December 
31, 1894. 

By these regulations, the quota of regular studies for each 
student is made to be such as to require, for a minimum, seventeen 
hours, and, for a maximum, twenty hours of class room work each 
week. In the application of this rule, two hours of laboratory 
work and of other exercises not requiring preparation, count as 
one. The character of the work of members of the Sophomore 
and Freshman classes is announced by numerical standings on a 
scale of one hundred. Only the general character of the work 
of members of the Senior and Junior classes is reported by assign- 
ing each student to one of four grades. 

Excuses for absence from individual exercises are not required. 
Each student is expected to pursue his work in a manly way, 


absenting himself from college exercises only when he has suffi- 
cient reasons for doing so. Of these reasons he is to be the 
judge, but a student who is absent from ten per cent or more of 
the exercises in any study, is not admitted to the final examina- 
tion. A student who fails to pass at any examination, is absent 
or is excluded from any examination will have two opportunities 
to take special examinations in the stud}^, one immediately before 
the beginning of each of the next two succeeding terms. If he 
is absent without sufficient reason from both of these special 
examinations, or fails to pass at one or the other, he is required 
to recite with the next class. 



Tuition and rooms in the domitory are free. The regular col- 
lege term charges are : — 

Heating and lighting of public rooms, $7-50 

Military and physical culture, LOO 

Eeading room, LOO 

Incidentals (including janitor's services, etc.),. 5-50 

Total, $15.00 

As the college year is divided into two terms, the annual charges 
will be $30. 

Other expenses vary according to the course of study and the 
tastes of the student. The most important item will be for 
board. In the college boarding house each student pays his 
share of the cost of supplies and a weekly sum, varying with the 
number of boarders, but not exceeding 60 cents, for the services 
of the steward and his assistants. The amount should not exceed 
$3 .00 per week, and will usually be less. Board may be obtained 
in clubs or private families at slightly higher prices. 

Rooms in the domitory are free, but students supply their own 
furniture, and pay for heat and light. The heating of one room, 
suitable for two persons, will usually cost about §10.00 a term. 
No student will be allowed to room in the domitory whose con- 
duct is in any way objectionable. 

Students in the chemical laboratory, physical laboratory, and 
shops paj' for materials used and apparatus destroyed. These 
charges will amount to about $3.00 per term in the chemical 
laboratory; to $L00 a term in the physical laboratory; and to 
$5 00 each for the courses in carpentry, forge-work, and machine 

The cost of text-books will average almost exactly $7.50 a 
term throughout the course. These may be bought from the col- 
lege librarian at cost, but must be paid for on delivery. The 
expense can be decreased by buying second hand books and sell- 
ing them when used. 

Students are charged for all damages done to college property 
or to that of other students. 

Each student is required to supply himself with a military uni- 
form ; but this should not be considered as involving an additional 
expense, since it will take the place of another suit, and can be 
purchased at a price considerably below that ordinarily charged 
for a civilian suit of equal quality. 


The trustees have prescribed a uniform consisting of dark blue 
blouse, with State of Maine buttons, and gold braid on cuffs ; 
trousers of lighter blue ; blue cap with gold wreath ornament ; 
white duck trousers for hot weather; overcoat of dark blue 
beaver cloth, of ulster length, with broad collar and detachable 
cape. Students are not required to buy the overcoat unless an 
overcoat is needed. It is suitable for general use, and costs 
$15-00. Students are required to wear their uniforms during 
military exercises, and are allowed to do so at other times. 
The uniform can be obtained of Robinson & Co. of Bangor, at 
very low prices, fixed by competitive bids. Students are at lib- 
erty to purchase of other persons, subject to the approval of the 
military instructor, who is required to see that the quality and 
fit are equal to those of the Robinson uniforms. The prices for 
the year ending November 30, 1895, are as follows : blouse $7-00; 
cloth trousers $5-00; three pairs of duck trousers $3-00; cap 
$1.50; three pairs of gloves 60c; three belts 30c; total, $17.40. 



FRATERNITIES.— The following college fraternities are rep- 
resented in the college: The Q. T. V. Fraternity, The B. G. II. 
Fraternity, The K. 2. Fraternity, The A. T. 13. Fraternity. 

COLLEGE ASSOCIATIONS.— The following associations for 
literary and other purposes exist among the students : The Civil 
Engineering Society, The Young Men's Christian Association, 
The Literary Society, The Athletic Association, The Maine State 
College Publishing Association, The Maine State College Electri- 
cal Society, The Reading Room Association, The Shakspere 
Society, The College Press Club, The College Band, and the Col- 
lege Orchestra. 

Young Men's Christian Association, composed of students, has 
for its object the promotion of Christian fellowship among its 
members and aggressive Christian work. Among its members 
are leaders in the athletic, social and intellectual life of the Col- 
lege. This united effort of the Christian young men to elevate 
the moral, social and spiritual life of the students has the hearty 
support of the Faculty. The Association maintains a series of 
lectures by eminent clergymen of the State, members of the 
Faculty, and other persons. 

THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONS.— The following associa- 
tions of the alumni have been organized : The East Maine 
Association — E. M. Blanding, Bangor, President. The West 
Maine Association— S. W. Bates, Portland, President; E. H. 
Elwell, Portland, Secretary. The Boston Association— L. C. 
Southard, President. The New York Association — A. J. Cald- 
well, President; L. W. Riggs, Secretary. The Washington 
(D. C.) Association— F. Lamson-Scribner, President. The 
Pacific Association— A. W. Saunders, Pullman, Washington, 
President; Hugo Clark, Seattle, Washington, Secretary. The 
North Maine Association— N. H. Martin, Fort Fairfield, Me., 




H. M. Estabrooke, President, Orono. 

H. S. Webb, Recording Secretary, Orono. 

Ralph K. Jones, Corresponding Secretary, Boston, Mass. 

Walter Flint, Treasurer, Orono. 

L. H. Merrill, Necrologist, Orono. 


E. J. Haskell, Class of 1872, 

J. M. Oak, Class of 1873, 

J. I. Gurnet, Class of 1874, 

E. F. Hitchings, Class of 1875, 

E. M. Blanding, Class of 1876, 

S. W. Gould, Class of 1877, 

John Locke, Jr., Class of 1878, 

F. E. Kidder, Class of 1879, 

A. H. Brown, Class of 1880, 

H. M. Plaisted, Class of 1881, 

W. R. Hoavard, Class of 1882, 

L. W. Tatlor, Class of 1883, 

G. H. Allen, Class of 1884, 

J. N. Hart, Class of 1885, 

R. K. Jones, Class of 1886, 

D. W. Colby, Class of 1887, 

T. G. Lord, Class of 1888, 

Nellie W. Reed, Class of 1889, 

N. C. Grover, Class of 1890, 

H. G. Menges, Class of 1891, 

G. F. Atherton, Class of 1892, 

G. F. Rowe, Class of 1893, 

J. M. Kimball, Class of 1894, 



. • Dorchester, Mass. 





Denver, Col. 


St. Louis, Mo. 

Saxtorts Biver, Vt. 




Boston, Mass. 





Everett, Mass. 

. • . Cape Elizabeth. 





The Annnal Catalogue of the Maine State College. — 
This contains statements of the courses of study, lists of the 
trustees, facultj-, and students, and other information relating to 
the College. 

The Annual Report of the Trustees, President, and 
Treasurer to the Governor and Council of the State 
of Maine. — The reports of the Trustees and President include 
an account of the general affairs and interests of the College for 
the year, reports from the heads of the various departments of 
instruction, and the report from the director of the Experiment 
Station covering in detail its expenses, operations, investigations, 
and results. 

The College Bulletins. — These are occasional publications 
containing reports of the investigations or researches made by 
the College officers, or other information relating to the College 
of public interest. 

The College Circulars. — These are small occasional pam- 
phlets, issued for special purposes. 

The Experiment Station Bulletins. — These are popular 
accounts of the results of Station work which relate directly to 
farm practice. At least four and usually twelve are issued each 

The Cadet. — This is a, monthly magazine published during 
the College year by an association of the students. It is devoted 
to the interests of the College, its students, and alumni. 

The Prism. — This is an annual published by the Junior Class. 
It contains information in regard to the College and its various 
organizations, and is elaborately illustrated. 




The Commencement exercises of 1894 were as follows : — 

Saturday, June 16, Junior Exhibition. 

Sunday, June 17, Baccalaureate Sermon, by the President. 

Monday, June 18, College Convocation, including report of the 
Examining Committee, reports of departments and student enter- 
prises and the awarding of prizes ; the Exhibition Drill ; Inspec- 
tion of College Buildings; Presentation of a portrait of Ex- 
President Fernald; Commencement Oration by Hon. Edwin 
Willits, of Washington, D. C. 

Tuesday, June 19, Meeting of the Trustees ; Fire Drill ; Recep- 
tion by the Q. T. V. and Beta Theta Pi Fraternities; Reception 
by the President. 

Wednesday, June 20, Commencement ; Commencement Dinner ; 
Meeting of the Alumni Association; Commencement Concert. 

Thursday, June 21, Class Day Exercises. 


The first degree was conferred, in course, on the following 
persons as shown : 

Frank Colburn Bowler, B. M. E., Orono. 

Edward Henry Cowan, B. C. E., Orono. 

George Parker Cowan, B. C. E., Bangor. 

Leroy Tolford Durham, B. C. E., Monroe. 

Charles Edward Gilbert, B. M. E., Orono. 

Frank Gilman Gould, B. C. E., Orono. 

Jesse Alexander Gray, B. S., Oldtown. 

George Harry Hall, B. M. E., Bangor. 

Augustus Daniel Hayes, B. C. E., Belfast. 

Alva Thomas Jordan, B. S., Lexington, Ky. 

Wallace Hight Jose, B. S., Newport. 

James Mayberry Kimball, B. C. E., Bangor. 

Herbert Murray, B. S., Rockland. 

Leon Orlando Norwood, B. C. E., Union. 

George Washington Rumball, B. M. E., Harrington. 

Edward Butler Wood, B. M. E., Camden. 
The second degree w^as conferred on the following persons 
upon presentation of satisfactory theses and proof of prof essional 


and scientific work extending over a period of not less than three 
years : 

Ralph Jesse Arey, C. E., Winslow, Ariz. 

Herbert Austin Hall, C. E., Prescott, Ariz. 

Allen Crosby Hardison, C. E., Santa Paula, Calif. 

William Alton Valentine, M. E., Philadelphia, Penn. 

Ralph Holbrook Wight, C. E., Green Bay, Wis. 

Miss Jennie Chase Michaels, M. S., Stillwater. 
The degree of Doctor of Philosophy was conferred, for eminent 
scientific attainments in architecture, upon presentation of proof 
of professional work in print, upon Frank Eugene Kidder, of 
Denver, Colorado. 




The trustees have decreed that any person who shall pay to the 
treasurer a sum not less than seven hundred and fifty dollars for 
the endowment of a scholarship may have the privilege of assign- 
ing to it such name as he may prefer. 

THE KIDDER SCHOLARSHIP.— The Kidder Scholarship 
was endowed by Frank E. Kidder, Ph. D., of Denver, Colorado, a 
graduate of this College in the class of 1879, to be awarded to a 
member of the Junior class to be selected by the President and 
the Faculty of the College. 


The Prentiss Prize, the gift of Mrs. Henry E. Prentiss of 
Bangor, will be awarded to that member of the Junior class who 
shall present the best oration at the Junior exhibition. In the 
award of this prize both the composition and the delivery of 
the oration will be considered. 

The Prentiss Declamation Prize, the gift of Mrs. Henry 
E. Prentiss of Bangor, for excellence in elocution, will be awarded 
to the best speaker in the Sophomore class. 

The Libbey Prize, the gift of the Hon. Samuel Libbey of 
Orono, will be awarded to the student who shall present the best 
essay upon an agricultural topic. The essays must be handed 
to the Professor of Agriculture on or before the first Monday in 

The Cumberland County Prize, the gift of Mr. E. T. Bur- 
rowes of Portland, will be awarded to that member of the Fresh- 
man class who shall write the best extemporaneous essay upon 
an assigned subject. In the award of this prize rhetorical 
accuracy will be the chief thing considered. 

The Kennebec County Prize, the gift of the Hon. William 
T. Haines of Waterville, will be awarded to that member of the 
Senior class who shall write the best essay on Applied Elec- 
tricity, i 

The Franklin Danforth Prize, the gift of Eugene F. Dan- 
forth of Skowhegan, a graduate of the College in the class of 
1877, in memory of his father, Franklin Danforth, will be awarded 
to that member of the Senior class in the Agricultural course who 
shall attain the highest standing. 


The Penobscot County Prize, the gift of the Hon. Henry 
Lord of Bangor, will be awarded to that member of the Junior 
class, who shall excel in public debate. 

The Aroostook County Prize, the gift of the Hon. Charles 
P. Allen of Presque Isle, will be awarded to that member of the 
Freshman class who shall excel in algebra. 

The Military Prize, the gift of an alumnus of the College, 
will be awarded to that member of the Senior class who shall 
write the best essay on a military subject. 

Mention for Military Excellence. — In accordance with 
the orders of the Adjutant General of the United States Army, 
the two cadets who attain the highest standing in the military 
department are reported to his office immediately after com- 
mencement, and their names are printed in the U. S. Army 

The Prizes were awarded last year as follows : 

The Prentiss Prize to Oscar Llewellyn Grover, of Redlands, 

The Prentiss Declamation Prize, to Marcus Libby Urann, of 

The Libbey Prize, to Lore Alford Rogers, of Patten. 

The Sophomore Standing Prize, to Charles Partridge Weston 
of Madison. 

The Freshman Standing Prize, to William Thomas Brastow, 
of Rockport. 

Mention for highest standing in the military department was 
made of Edward Butler Wood, Augustus Daniel Hayes, and Her- 
bert Murray. 




Frank Colburn Bowler, Orono ; Edward Henry Cowan, Orono ; 
George Parker Cowan, Bangor ; Leroy Tolford Durham, Monroe ; 
Charles Edward Gilbert, Orono ; Frank Gilman Gould, Orono ; 
Jesse Alexander Gray, Oldtown: George Harry Hall, Bangor; 
James Elmore Harvey, Readfield; Augustus Daniel Hayes, Bel- 
fast ; Wallace Hight Jose, Newport ; James Mayberry Kimball, 
Bangor; Herbert Murray, Rockland; Leon Orlando Norwood, 
Union ; George Washington Rumball, Harrington ; Edward 
Butler Wood, Camden. 


Wendell Wyse Chase, Auburn; Frank Damon, Hampden; 
Merton Eugene Ellis, West Guilford; Leroy Rowell Folsom, 
Corinna; Charles Albert Frost, Monmouth; Oscar Llewellyn 
Grover, Redlands, Calif. ; James William Martin, Waltham, 
Mass.; Earl Clinton Merrill, East Eddington; Albion Moulton, 
Hiram ; Clifford James Pattee, Belfast. 


Edward Everett Gibbs, Bridgton; Everett Gray Glidden, 
Augusta ; George Wesley Jeffery, North Monmouth ; Perley 
Burnham Palmer, Bridgton; Joseph William Randlette, Rich- 
mond; Paul Dudley Sargent, Machias; Stanley John Steward, 
Foxcroft ; Mark Libby Urann, Sullivan ; Perley Walker, Embden ; 
Charles Partridge Weston, Madison. 



This fund, amounting to nearly one thousand dollars, was 
established by Nehemiah Kittredge of Bangor. It is in the con- 
trol of the President and Treasurer of the College, by whom it is 
loaned to needy students. In the deed of gift, it was prescribed 
that no security should be required further than personal notes 
bearing interest at the prevailing rate. Loans are made on the 
conditions that the interest shall be paid promptly, and that the 
principal shall be returned from the first earnings after gradua- 


This fund, amounting to about one hundred dollars, was 
established by Abner Coburn of Skowhegan, to be used in aiding 
needy students in the purchase of the military uniform. 



Religious services of a simple character are held in the College 
chapel every morning except Saturday. All students are required 
to be present. Every student is required to attend one service on 
Sunday in one of the churches of the village. Voluntary relig- 
ious services under the direction of the Young Men's Christian 
Association are held weekly. 


The College has a pleasant and healthful location in Penobscot 
county and town of Orono, half way between the villages of 
Orono and Stillwater, three miles from the city of Oldtown, and 
nine miles from the city of Bangor. The village of Orono is upon 
the Maine Central Railroad which gives easy access to all parts 
of the State. The Stillwater river, a tributary of the Penobscot, 
flows in front of the buildings, forming the western boundary of 
the College campus. 



Military instruction is required by United States law. The 
department is under the charge of a graduate of the United 
States Military Academy, an officer of the regular army of the 
United States, detailed by the President of the United States for 
this purpose. The course has especial reference to the duties of 
officers of the line. Cadet rifles, ammunition and accouterments 
are furnished by the War Department. The students are organ- 
ized into an infantry battalion of three companies, band and sig- 
nal corps, officered by cadets selected for their character, soldierly 
bearing, and military efficiency. The battalion is instructed and 
disciplined'in accordance with rules prescribed by the President 
of the United States. The three cadets of the Senior class who 
attain the highest standing in the military department are reported 
to|the^ Adjutant General of theU. S. Army, immediately after com- 
mencement, and their names are printed in the U. S. Army Reg- 
ister. Cadets who have satisfactorily completed the course in 
military science receive, at graduation, a certificate of military 
proficiency and are reported to the Adjutant General of Maine. 

The following students distinguished themselves as marksmen 
during the year ending June 1894 : — George Harry Hall, Augus- 
tus Daniel Hayes, George Washington Rumball, Charles Edward 
Gilbert, Earl Clinton Merrill, Albion Moulton, Oscar Llewellyn 
Grover, Alfred Howard Buck, Merton Eugene Ellis, Gardiner 
Benson Wilkins, Howard Evelith Stevens, Davis Tillson Achorn. 

The following students were awarded special military certifi- 
cates at the Commencement of 1884, and were reported to the 
Adjutant General of Maine: — Edward Butler Wood, Augustus 
Daniel Hayes, Herbert Murray, James Mayberry Kimball, George 
Harry Hall, Wallace Hight Jose, Frank Gilman Gould, Edward 
Henry Cowan, Frank Coburn Bowler, Leon Orlando Norwood, 
George Washington Rumball, Leroy Tolford Durham. 

The first three were reported to the Adjutant General of the 
U. S. Army. 




Second Lieutenant Mark Leslie Hersey, 9th IT. S Infantry, 

field and staff. 

Major — Cadet Harold Sherburne Boardman. 
First Lieutenant and Adjutant — Cadet Earl Clinton Merrill. 
First Lieutenant and Quartermaster — Cadet Wendell Wyse 

First Lieutenant and Chief Signal Officer — Cadet Frank Damog. 


Sergeant Major — Frank Leonard Marston. 
Quartermaster Sergeant— Cadet Charles Partridge Weston. 

Company A. 

Captain Cadet Albion Moulton. 

First Lieutenant Cadet Oscar Llewellyn Grover. 

Second Lieutenant.. Cadet Charles Dura Thomas. 

First Sergeant Cadet Joseph William Randlette. 

Sergeant Cadet Harry Clifford Farrell. 

Sergeant Cadet Everett Gray Glidden. 

Sergeant Cadet Frederick Andrew Hobbs. 

Corporal Cadet Arthur John Dalot. 

Corporal Cadet Charles Sydney Brier. 

Corporal Cadet George Greenwood Leayett. 

Corporal Cadet Allen Rogers. 

Corporal Cadet John Parks Chase. 

Company B. 

Captain Cadet Melville Frederick Rollins. 

First Lieutenant Cadet Charles Albert Frost. 

Second Lieutenant . • Cadet Ora Willis Knight. 

First Sergeant Cadet Edward Everett Gibbs. 

Sergeant Cadet Beecher Davis Whitcomb. 

Sergeant Cadet Gardiner Benson Wilkins. 

Sergeant Cadet Gilbert Tolman. 

Sergeant .j. Cadet Roy Lynde Fernald. 




Company C. 

Captain Cadet Isaac Glidden Calderwood. 

First Lieutenant Cadet Walter Marshall Murphy. 

Second Lieutenant.. Cadet Halbert Gardiner Robinson. 

First Sergeant Cadet Perley Burnham Palmer. 

Sergeant Cadet Paul Dudley Sargent. 

Sergeant Cadet George Wesley Jeffrey. 

Sergeant Cadet Herman Stephen Martin. 

Sergeant Cadet John Alvah Starr. 

Corporal Cadet Stephen Sans Bunker. 

Corporal Cadet Ernest Henry Macloon. 

Corporal Cadet William Lawrence Holyoke. 

Corporal Cadet Charles Henry Farnham. 

Corporal Cadet Justin Robert Clary. 

Color Guard. 

Color Sergeant Cadet Perley Walker. 

Cadet Gilbert Gustatus Atwood. 
Cadet LeRoy Tolford Folsom. 


First Lieutenant Cadet Alfred Howard Buck. 

Second Lieutenant.. Cadet Merton Eugene Ellis. 

Sergeant Cadet Frank Edwin Weymouth. 

Corporal Cadet Stanwood Hill Cosmey. 

Corporal Cadet Andrew Jarvis Patten. 

Signal Section. 
Second Lieutenant.. Cadet Clifford James Pattee. 





Cowan, George Parker, B. C. E-, 
Hall, George Harry, B. M. E., 
Jack, Walter Dows, B. S., 


Atwood, Gustavus Gilbert, 

Boardman, Harold Sherburne, 
Buck, Alfred Howard, 
Calderwood, Isaac Glidden, 
Chase, Wendell Wyze, 
Damon, Frank, 

Ellis, Merton Eugene, 

Folsom, LeRoy Rowell, 

Frost, Charles Albert, 
Grover, Oscar Llewellyn, 
de Haseth, Gerardus Andries, 
Knight, Ora Willis, 
Martin, James William, 
Merrill, Earl Clinton, 

Moulton, Albion, 
Murphy, Walter Marshall, 

Pattee, Clifford James, 
Robinson, Halbert Gardiner, 
Rollins, Melville Frederick, 
Thomas, Charles Dura, 

Bangor, Bangor. 

Bangor, Head House. 

Brunswick, Young's Hotel. 

South Carver, Mass., Mr. John 
Bangor, 3 B. 0. n. House. 

Foxcroft, 2 B. 0. II. House. 
Vinalhaven, 6 Q. T. V. House. 
Auburn, 2 B. O. n. House. 
Hampden, Mr. Alan son Ken- 
North Guilford, 8 Q. T. Y. 
Corinna, Mr. Alaoson Ken- 
Monmouth, 8 Q. T. Y. House. 
Bedlands, Calif., Maples. 

Curacao, 5 Q. T. Y. House. 
Bangor, Mrs. P. B. Graves'. 
Boston, Mass., 1 B. 0. II. House. 
East Eddington, 3 B. 0. II. 

Hiram, 5 Oak Hall. 

South Norridgewock, Mr. Paul 
Belfast, 8 Q. T. Y. House. 

Patten, Mr. Elijah Webster's. 
Bangor, 13 Oak HalL 

Brownville, 5 Oak Hall. 



Farrell, Harry Clifford, 
Fernald, Roy Lynde, 
Gibbs, Edward Everett, 
Glidden, Everett Gray, 
Gooch, Fred Burton, 

Machias, 18 Oak Hall. 

Winterport, 10 B. 0. n. House. 
Bridgton, 7 B. 0. n. House. 
Augusta, 7 Q. T. Y. House. 
Yarmouth, 9 Oak HalL 



Hobbs, Frederick Andrew, 
Jeffery, George Wesley, 
Kidder, Elmer Elwood, 
Libby, Frank Joshua, 
Manter, Ralph Barton, 
Martin, Herman Stephen, 
Marston, Frank Leonard, 
McLeod, Daniel James, 
Morse, Percy Franklin, 
Mies, Herbert Lester, 
Page, Warren Robbins, 
Palmer, Perley Burnham, 

Pride, Frank Perley, 
Randlette, Joseph William, 
Rogers, Lore Alford, 
Sargent, Paul Dudley, 
Starr, John Alvah, 
Steward, Stanley John, 
Tolman, Gilbert, 
Walker, Perley, 
Weston, Charles Partridge, 
Weymouth, Frank Edwin, 

Whitcomb, Beecher Davis, 
Wilkins, Gardiner Benson, 

Alfred, 13 Oak Hall. 

North Monmouth, 25 Oak Hall. 
Winslow, Mr. Paul Webster's. 
Bichmond, Q. T. V. House. 
Milo, 11 Oak Hall. 

Foxcroft, 16 Oak Hall. 

Bangor, 3 Q. T. V. House. 
Brewer, 26 Oak Hall. 

West Hampden, 2 Oak Hall. 
Levant, 9 Oak Hall. 

Hampden, Mr. John Spearen's. 
South Bridgton, 7 B. 0. II. 

Westbrook, 12 Oak Hall. 

Bichmond, 18 Oak Hall. 

Patten, 2 Oak Hall. 

Machias, 5 Q. T. V. House. 
Orland, 7 Q. T. Y. House. 

Foxcroft, Mr. John Spearen's. 
Milo, 12 Oak Hall. 

Embden, 4 Q. T. Y. House. 
3Iadison, 2 B. 0. n. House. 
Medford Center, Mr. Paul Web- 
Easton, 6 Oak Hall. 

Brownville, 6 Oak Hall. 



Albee, George Plummer, 
Atwood, Edward Moseley, 
Bird, Tyler Hanson, 
Brastow, William Thomas, 
Brown, William Bourne, 
Bryer, Charles Sydney, 
Bunker, Stephen Sans, 
Chase, John Parks, 
Clary, Justin Robert, 
Coburn, William Bridgham, 

Cosmey, Stanwood Hill, 
Cowan, Arthur Sydney, 
Crowell, Walter Newton, 

Dalot, Arthur John, 
Farnham, Charles Henry, 
Flint, Bert Whitaker, 

Bichmond, Mrs. P. B. Groves'. 
Hampden, 21 Oak Hall. 

Belfast, Mr. Paul Webster's. 
Bockport, 4 Q. T. V. House. 
Jay, Mr. John Spearen's. 

Boothbay, 8 Q. T. V. House. 
Bar Harbor, 5 Q. T. Y. House. 
Bath, 4 B. 0. n. House. 

Hallowell, 4 Q. T. Y. House. 
Sherman Mills, Mr. John 

Bangor, 4 B. 0. n . House. 

Orono, Mr. Chas. S. Cowan's. 
Beverly, Mass , Mrs. J. H. 

Dalotville, 3 Q. T. Y. House. 
Beverly, Mass., 19 Oak Hall. 
Thorndike, 15 Oak Hall. 



Goodridge, Perley Francis, 
Gorham, Frank Edward, 
Gould, Vernon Kimball, 
Heath, Stanley Jacob, 
Holyoke, William Lawrence, 
Leavitt, George Greenwood, 

Macloon, Ernest II nry, 

Merrill, Edward Arthur, 

Patten, Andrew Jarvis, 

Porter, Joseph White Humphrey, 

Porter, Byron Frank, 

Rogers, Allen, 

Russell, Myron Roswell, 

Simpson, Erastus Poland, 
Stevens, Howard Evelith, 
Upton, Edwin Carlton, 
W r hite, Harvey Aaron, 

Orono, Mr. O. T. Goodridge's. 

Bound Pond, 15 Oak Hall. 

Milo, 11 Oak Hall. 

Bangor, Home. 

Brewer, Prof. A. B. Aubert's. 

South Berwick, Mr. Paul Web- 

Deering, 6 B. 0. II. House. 

Winn, 16 Oak Hall. 

Cherry field, 14 Oak Hall. 

Stillwater, Home. 

Stillwater, Home. 

Hampden, Prof. A. E. Rogers'. 

Vernon, Vt., Mr. Dexter Mer- 

Brunswick, 3 B. 9. II. House. 

Bluehill, Mrs. P. B. Groves'. 

Bath, 6 B. 0. n. House. 

Brewer, Brewer. 



Adams, Henry Gilbert, 
Anderson, Ralph Sidney, 
Archie, John Francis, 
Bailey, Fred Wesley, 
Bartlette, Lester Franklin, 
Barron, Wilson Darling, 
Brann, Leo Lin Jefferson, 
Bryant, Edwin Scammon, 
Bunnell, Albro Lenard, 
Burns, Fred Eugene, 
Clark, Fred Robinson, 
Coney, Edward, 
Crowell, Charles Parker, 
Davis, Edward Harmon, 
Day, Harry Earl, 
Dearborn, John Washington, 
Decelle, William Edwin, 
Despeaux, Humphrey Elmore, 
Dillingham, Samuel Clark, 
Dolley, Walter, 
Dow, Leroy Eugene, 
Dunn, Rena Ethel, 
Dunn, Rossell Olin, 
Edwards, Llewellyn Nathaniel, 
Ellis, Walter Lincoln, 

Cumberland, 30 Oak Hall. 

Yarmouth, 29 Oak Hall. 

Hallowell, 17 Oak Hall. 

Belfast, Mr. L. P. Harris's. 
Hampden, Mr. John Spearen's. 
Dexter, Mr. Paul Webster's. 
Gardiner, 9 B. 9. II. House. 
Portland, 23 Oak Hall. 

Woodfords, 4 B. 0. n. House. 
Westbrook, 33 Oak Hall. 

Yarmouth, 29 Oak Hall. 

Bangor, 39 Oak Hall. 

Orono, Mrs. J. H. Emery's. 
Auburn, Mr. L. P. Harris's. 
Gorham, 6 Q. T. V. House. 
Bradford, 41 Oak Hall. 

Portland, 43 Oak Hall. 

Brunswick, Mr. L. P. Harris's. 
Portland, 8 B. 0. II. House. 
Gorham, 32 Oak Hall. 

Portland, 23 Oak Hall. 

Orono, Mr. Olin C. Dunn's. 
Orono, Mr. Olin C. Dunn's. 
Otisfield, 26 Oak Hall. 

Waterville, Mr. Paul Webster's. 





Emerson, Fred Augustus, 
Emery, Edgar James, 
Fernandez, Grace Lillian, 
Files, William Rolfe, 
Frost, George Sherman, 
Gibbs, Bernard Alston, 
Hamlin, Ralph, 
Haney, William Wallace, 
Higgins, Harry Allison, 
Hopkins, Fred Weston, 
Jose, Hallie Lewis, 
Johnson, Bertrand Bandall, 
Johnston, Cecil Chestnut, 
Lawrence, George Warren, 
Libbey, Herbert Oscar, 

Libby, Albion Dana Topliffe, 

Libby, Herbert Ivory, 
Lincoln, Harry Matthew, 
Manson, Eay Herbert, 
Marks, Homer Elbridge, 
Merrill, Adelbert Samuel, 
Merrill, Dana True, 
Merrill, Elmer Drew, 
Merrill, Harrison Pratt, 

Morrill, Walter Jean, 
Moulton, Waitstill Douglass, 
Nowlan, Edwin Ernest, 
Pearce, Charles Abram, 
Rockwood, Ralph Hubbard, 
Ryther, Leon Edwin, 
Seavey, Haller David, 
Small, Albert Clifford, 
Smith, George Albert, 
Smith, William Cobb, 
Sprague, Alden Percy, 
Starbird, Alfred Andrews, 
Stevens, Ray Parker, 
Sturgis, Edwin Albert, 
Tarr, Roderic Desmond, 
Taylor, Arthur Horace, 
Thomas, John Franklin, 
Tolman, Fred Moses, 
Tolman, Wilfred Reuben, 

Winthrop, Mass., 35 Oak Hall. 

Hampden, . 

Sangerville, Boarding House. 
West Gorham, 32 Oak Hall. 
Bridgewater, Ct., 25 Oak Hall. 
Glenbum, 41 Oak Hall. 

Orono, Mrs. Laura Hamlin's. 
Eastport, Mr. Solomon Gee's. 
Deering, 32 Oak Hall. 

Bangor, 21 Oak Hall. 

Dexter, Mr. Alanson Kenney's. 
Deering, 9 B. G II. House. 
Fort Fairfield, 20 Oak Hall. 
South Gardiner, 44 Oak Hall. 
East Bochester, N. II. , 34 Oak 
North Scarboro, Mr. John 

Biddeford, 6 Q. T. V. House. 
Bangor, 28 Oak Hall. 

Farmingdale, 44 Oak Hall. 
Woodfords, 6 B. 9. II. House. 
Belfast, Mr. P. Wall's. 

East Auburn, 28 Oak Hall. 
East Auburn, 28 Oak Hall. 
Turner Center, Mr. L. P. Har- 
Madison, 35 Oak Hall. 

Wales, Mrs. J. H. Emery's. 
Lowell, Mass., "21 Oak Hall. 
Fort Fail-field, 20 Oak Hall. 
Waterville, 17 Oak Hall. 

Bondsville, Mass , 35 Oak Hall. 
Bangor, 22 Oak Hall. 

Lisbon Center, 34 Oak Hall. 
Auburn, Mr. L. P. Harris's. 
Gray, 43 Oak Hall. 

Vanceboro, Mr. Simmons's. 
South Paris, 39 Oak Hall. 

BrooJclin, 7 Q. T. V. House. 
Lewiston, 33 Oak Hall. 

Biddeford, 6 Q. T. V. House. 
Machias, 5 Q. T. V. House. 
Brownville, 5 Oak Hall. 

Carroll, 27 Oak Hall. 

Augusta, 37 Oak Hall. 



Tucker, Fred Crandall, 
Warner, Albert Frank, 
Watson, Lee Merton, 
Webber, Mortimer Asa, 
Webster, Charles Staples, 
Welch, Warner Edwin, 
Whipple, Albert Lawrence, 
White, Horace Loring, 
Whittemore, George Arthur, 

Wis well, Carl Gardner, 
York, Jabez, 

Lubec, Mr. John Spearen's. 
Ansonia\ Conn., 37 Oak Hall. 
Boston, Mass., 32 Oak Hall. 
Ivoryton, Conn,, 20 Oak Hall. 
Portland, 8 B. 0. n. House. 
Orono, Mr. O. C. Welch's. 
Solon, 14 Oak Hall. 

Portland, 30 Oak Hall. 

Framingham, Mass., 4 Q. T. V. 
East Machias, Mrs. Beals's. 
Bangor, 26 Oak Hall. 



Hamilton, Geneva Ring, 
Larrabee, Anna J., 

Perkins, Ethel Ada, 

Ring, Virginia Mary, 
Sheridan, Lena Matilda, 
Vinall, Rena Pearl, 


Orono, Mr. H. A. Hamilton's. 
Kennebunk, College Boarding 
Orono, Mr. Stephen P. Per- 
Orono, Mr. Charles B. Ring's. 
Orono, Prof. A. B. Aubert's, 
Orono, Mr. Phineas Vinall's. 

Achorn, Davis Tillson, M. E., Bockland, Mr. Paul Webster's. 

Austin, Hoi lis Eaton, Ag., Lamoine, Mr. Simmons'. 

Blanchard, Franz Hodsdon, E. E., Dexter, Mr. Alanson Kenney's. 
Buffum, Charles Nathaniel, M. E., Orono, 10 B. 0. II. House. 
Brown, Charles Winchester, West Glover, Vt., Mrs. Beals's. 

Dickerson, Fred William, E. E., Belfast, Mr. O. T. Goodridge's. 
Dow, Harry Eugene, Ch., Searsport, 23 Oak Hall. 

Drummond, Augustus Bid well, Ch., Bangor, Bangor. 

Dyer, William Elmer, C. E., 
Ellms, Alonzo Lemont, Ag., 
Farrar, Lottie Gertrude, Ch., 
French, Frank Luther, M. E., 
Fuller, James Elmo, M. E., 
Goodridge, Nathan Eaton, M. E., 
Griffin, Loring Blanchard, Ag., 

Hamilton, Robert Whitman, Ag., 
Herald, Walter, C. E., Calais, 

Hooper, James Henry, Ag., Turner, 

Hopkins, Kendall Charles, M. E., Camden, 
Lapham, Isaac Newton, Ag., Pittston, 

Lawrence, Percival Farnham, Ch., Bangor, 

Calais, 45 Oak Hall. 

Bipley, Mr. Simmons's. 

Bangor, Mr. Charles ButFum's. 
Solon, Mrs. Frank Budw r ay's. 
Hartland, Mr. C. H. Colburn's. 
Orono, Mr. O. T. Goodridge's. 
Stockton Springs, Mr. Sim- 
Saco, Mr. Elijah Webster's. 

45 Oak Hall. 

Mrs. Groves'. 

Oak Hall. 

Mr. O. C. Dunn's. 


N orris, George Hassell, Ch., 

Elinham, Norfolk, England. 




Oakes*, Louis, 0. E., 
Page, Ernest Elmeiv Ag., 
Reid<, John Rowan, E. E., 
Kicker, Daniel Wesley, Ag., 
Saw telle, William Otis, Ch. 
Sawyer, Charles Jewett, E. E., 
Shurtleff, Herbert Arthur, Ag., 
Smith, Arthur Nealley, M. E., 
Swett, Irviug Cooper, E. E., 
Vinall, Robert Preston, E. E., 
Watts, Clarence Everett, 

Foxcroft, Mr. John Spearen's. 
Kenduskeag, Mr. O. C. Dunn's. 
Bangor, 36 Oak Hall. 

East Auburn, Mr. O. C. Dunn's. 
Bangor, Bangor. 

Bangor, Bangor. 

South Livermore^ Mrs, Groves'. 
Winterport, 19 Oak HalL 

Bangor, 22 Oak Hall. 

Orono, Mr. Phineas Vinall's. 
East Machias, Mrs. Beat's. 

Abbreviations.— Ag., agriculture; C. E., civil engineering; Ch., chem- 
istry; E. E., electrical engineering; M. E., mechanical engineering. 


Post graduate students, 3 

Seniors 20 

Juniors, 29 

Sophomores, 33 

Freshmen, 79 

Library Economy students, 6 

Special students, 33 

Total, 203 


THC ubhahy or 

JAN 8 m 

V ,r 




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